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Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 535

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 544

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Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 395

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Å motstå fristelser – atferd i endring – Speilvendt
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Å motstå fristelser – atferd i endring


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Nok en gang – slankekuren gikk dårlig. Samtidig vet vi jo med oss selv at vi ville så sterkt som bare det. Hvorfor fikk vi det ikke til?

Tekst: Henrik Natvig
Illustrasjon: Victoria Haallman Hamre

Vi er topp motiverte, men de gode slankeforsettene kommer og går som nyttårsforsett pleier etter vareopptellingen i midten av februar. Så hva skjer? Om vi er topp motiverte, er det lite eller ingenting å hente i form av vektreduksjon ved å prøve å ville enda sterkere. Det klassiske intensjon-atferdsgapet dukker opp.

Sheeran (2002) fant i en stor metaanalyse av 422 prospektive tester at intensjoner gjennomsnittlig forklarte 28 % av variansen i atferd. Det er jo en stor effekt etter Cohens (1992) retningslinjer. Men da Webb og Sheeran (2006) gikk ett skritt videre og sjekket hvor godt endringer i intensjoner kunne forklare endringer i atferd ble resultatet nedslående. Medium til stor (9-25 %) endring i intensjoner førte til liten til medium (1-9 %) endring i atferd; intensjoner påvirker atferd, men i mindre grad enn tidligere antatt.

Historisk tilbakeblikk på betydningen av selvregulering
Mischel og kolleger (2011) gjennomførte de kjente marshmallow-studiene der 4-åringer fikk velge mellom å spise én marshmallow raskt eller å utsette spisingen og få to. Forskjeller mellom barnas evne til å vente, hang sammen med en rekke viktige områder i livet 30-40 år seinere. Barna med best selvregulering hadde som voksne bedre utdannelse, mindre økonomiske, mentale og rusrelaterte problemer, og færre var overvektige. Moffitt og kollegaer fulgte samme spor og kartla samtlige 1037 barn født i 1972-73 i Dunedin, New Zealand, til de var 32 år gamle (Kraft, 2014). Deres resultater lignet på Mischels. Barna med dårligst selvregulering hadde mange av de samme utfordringene som voksne. Studiene tyder på at evnen til selvregulering er relativt stabil gjennom livet, men ytterligere forskning viser at selvregulering også kan trenes opp og styrkes både for barn og voksne (Kraft, 2014).

Statistikk fra Folkehelsa (2017) viser kraftig økning i overvekt og fedme, men ingen tror at evnen til selvregulering har blitt tilsvarende svekket. Det er vanlig å forklare økningen i vekt med samfunnsendringer som fremmer inaktivitet og inntak av tilgjengelig, energitett mat. Slike forklaringer hjelper likevel ikke den enkelte som vil ned i vekt.

Smartere selvregulering
Hvordan kan vi bruke selvregulering til å nå målene våre? Det sentrale punktet her er nettopp målene våre. Vi tenker kanskje at vi skal ned fem kilo og sliter hardt med å styre unna dagens mange fristelser. En smartere måte er å spesifisere hva som skal endres for å nå målet. Vi må lage såkalte implementeringsintensjoner, altså spesifiserte handlingsplaner. Ved å planlegge hvordan vi skal takle daglige utfordringer, slipper vi å bruke så mye viljestyrke hver gang vi møter fristelsene.

Kraft (2014) beskriver hvordan overvektige er utsatt for en dobbel konflikt. Det er dokumentert at overvektige har et sterkere sug etter søt og fet mat. Synet, lukten og tanken på god mat bidrar til å utløse denne impulsive, varme motivasjonen. Kraft (2014, s. 145) skriver at om overvektige og normalvektige har like sterk selvregulering (kalde refleksjoner), så får overvektige flere og sterkere impulser til å spise, som krever mer selvregulering å stå imot. Vektnedgang kan dermed delvis forklares ved at det sterke fokuset på målet raskt blir aktivert av fristende mat. Kalde overveide kognisjoner kan derfor kobles på straks vi møter fristelser, men prosessen gjøres likevel mer overkommelig ved å lage snevrere og presist beskrevne delmål. Målene vi setter oss må endres fra å handle om å kontrollere alle de varme fristelsene, til å gjelde kalde overveielser der vi kobler stimuli fra risikosituasjoner med bestemte planlagte handlinger.

Viljestyrke er ikke en utømmelig ressurs. Baumeister har sammenlignet den med en muskel – viljestyrken trenger energi (glukose), kan trenes og, i hektiske perioder, bli midlertidig brukt opp om den ikke får hvile. Oppbrukt viljestyrke kalles ofte ego depletion. I en metaanalyse av 83 studier, fant Hagger og kolleger (2010) signifikante effekter der ego depletion svekket selvkontrollen, målt gjennom innsatsvilje, opplevd vanskelighetsgrad, negative emosjoner, slitenhet og glukosenivå i blodet. For å øke sjansene for å lykkes med slankeforsettene, må man identifisere personlig relevante situasjonelle signaler som pares med handlinger vi planlegger å utføre når situasjonene dukker opp. Planene bør inneholde hvordan atferden skal utføres og hvordan hindringer skal takles. De må presisere forbindelsen mellom et mål, midlene for å nå målet og situasjoner handlingen kan utføres i. Til å begynne med vil planens gjennomføring kreve mye selvregulering, men vil etter hvert etableres som vaner.

Hvordan skal vi så få laget gode handlingsplaner? Hagger og Luszczynska (2014) har oppsummert forskningen: personlig relevante mål som konkrete aktiviteter («Jeg skal løpe 5 km hver onsdag»). Opptil fem slike planer kan fungere optimalt. De fremhever også betydningen av å inkludere tilleggsplaner for å takle uforutsette hindringer. Det avgjørende er å være motivert nok til å orke å jobbe for endringer. Det koster mye av selvreguleringsbanken å etablere nye vaner, enten det handler om vektnedgang, bedre kondisjon eller andre helsevaner – men det vil bli lettere etter hvert.

Henrik Natvig er førsteamanuensis i helsepsykologi ved Psykologisk institutt, UiO.

 

Referanser

Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155-159.

Folkehelseinstituttet (2017). Overvekt og fedme. Hentet fra http://www.fhi.no/artikler/?id=110553

Hagger, M. S., Wood, C., Stiff, C., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2010). Ego depletion and the strength model of self-control: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136(4), 495-525.

Hagger, M. S. & Luszczynska, A. (2014). Implementation intention and action planning interventions in health contexts: State of the research and proposals for the way forward. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 6, 1-47.

Kraft, P. (2014). Selvregulering. Om endring av atferd og vaner i det moderne samfunnet. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Mischel, W. et al. (2011). ‘Willpower’ over the life span: decomposing self-regulation. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, 252–256.

Sheeran, P. (2002). Intention-behavior relations: a conceptual and empirical review. European Review of Social Psychology, 12, 1-36.

Webb, T. L., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Does changing behavioral intentions engender behavior change? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 132(2), 249-268.


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