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Carl Gustav Jung – Speilvendt
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Carl Gustav Jung


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(1875-1961)
Sveitsisk psykiater og psykoanalytiker som startet analytisk psykologi.

C. G. Jung var så vidt nevnt i introduksjonsfaget til psykologi (som nå er falt bort). Det stod om hans forhold til Freud, og at han fikk liten innflytelse på senere psykologi, med unntak av begrepene ekstroversjon og introversjon, og «selvaktualisering som et grunnleggende motiv» (Teigen, 2015). David Cronenbergs film A Dangerous Method (2011) gjorde Jung mer kjent for allmennheten. Jeg kunne valgt å ta for meg en mindre kjent psykolog, for Jung er ikke helt glemt. C. G. Jung-sentre og jungianske analytikere finnes over hele verden. Men for mange er han obskur, og mange kjenner ikke til hans åpne og velkommende terapeutiske metode. I denne teksten vil jeg, så nøytralt jeg kan, legge frem Jungs ideer. Du som leser, kan selv velge hva du vil gjøre med det.  

Psykoanalysen begynte med en drøm: Freuds drøm om «Irmas injeksjon», som innleder hans sentrale verk Drømmetydning. Drømmen var preget av engstelsene han følte rundt behandlingen av «Irma» (egentlig Anna O.), en pasient som led av hysteri, og som ikke ble frisk. I drømmen undersøker han halsen hennes, og kaller på sine kolleger; de ter seg dumt og fjollete, ler, og foreslår at hun har diaré; til slutt ser Freud for seg den kjemiske formelen for trimetylamin.

Jung hadde et veldig nært forhold til Freud i perioden 1905-1912, før Jung etter stadig misstemning brøt forholdet, og seg selv ned i en periode med «forvirring», som varte i seks år. Han fortsatte å ta imot pasienter på dagtid, men trappet ned fra sitt professorat. Utvendig satt han godt i det, med et fint ekteskap, et hus ved Zürichsjøen, og en blomstrende privatpraksis. Men på nattestid var han bombardert av bilder fra sitt ubevisste, av visjoner så sterke at han måtte gripe seg fast i bordet for å holde balansen. Materialet fra disse visjonene samlet han i en bok innbundet i rødt skinn, i vakre, merkelige gestalter som fra et illuminert middelaldermanuskript. Freudianere har sagt at Jung var psykotisk da, men jungianere har pekt på at han var oppmerksomhet til stede, lyttende til det ubevisste.

Før dette var Jung på reise til USA med Freud, og hadde også en betydningsfull drøm: I drømmen var han i et hus han følte var «hans». Han befant seg i annen etasje, i en slags salong, med rokokkomøbler og gamle bilder på veggene. Han steg ned til første etasje, der alt var mye eldre, fra 15. eller 16. århundre. Besatt av en trang til å utforske hele huset, fant ham frem til en tung dør, og bak den en trapp ned til kjelleren. Han steg ned til et hvelvet rom, med vegger han gjenkjente fra romertiden. Han strøk over steinplatene og kjente en ring – da han trakk i den, åpenbartes enda en smal nedgang. Her nede var en grotte hugget ut i stein; bein, knust keramikk, og to kranier lå i tykt støv på bakken.

Fordi drømmearbeid var sine qua non for Freud og Jung, er det interessant at disse drømmene kan si så mye. «Irmas injeksjon» kan tolkes som slutten av Freuds grubling over spørsmålet om hvem det er som står til ansvar for pasientens bedring (Forrester, 1990). Anna O. viste visstnok motstand, og drømmen kan tolkes i lys av det kritikere har kalt psykoanalysens usagte «kontraktnatur» – at analysanden binder seg til å snakke fritt om alt. Og da er det Annas egen skyld at hun ikke blir frisk.

«Husdrømmen» er et slags stilleben av Jungs psykologi. Man har i tillegg til det personlige ubevisste, det kollektivt ubevisste – et medfødt, tidløst lag av psykisk energi alle har til felles. Derfra kommer arketyper, altså tankemønstre og bilder, til uttrykk i drømmer, atferd, og hendelser. Arketyper kan man tenke på som krefter, energier, heller enn ting eller essenser. De får uttrykk i personens kontekst, og «konstelleres» i bevisstheten.

Tidlig i terapien er det vanlig å konfrontere skyggen, som er ens undertrykte, forbudte sider; de kan være uhyggelige, men også fine, som egenskaper vi ikke har kunnet ta i bruk. Andre ubevisste krefter er anima og animus – menns feminine, og kvinners maskuline sider. Dessuten består personlighet av motsetningene føling–tenkning og intuisjon–sansning. Den viktigste arketypen er Selvet, som er både det minste og det største, totaliteten av det bevisste og ubevisste, og en helbredende kraft i terapien. Prosessen i jungiansk terapi kalles individuasjon, og går mot integrasjonen av de nevnte ubevisste elementene, for etter hvert å gjøre pasienten mer hel og sammenhengende, mer flersidig, litt visere, og litt mindre naiv, kanskje. Arketyper er, igjen, ikke «ting» eller figurer som finnes i sinnet, men krefter, som kan ledsage og geleide individuasjonsprosessen, så langt pasienten åpner seg for sitt ubevisste, og erkjenner at det er mye større enn en selv.

Den jungianske tolkningen av husdrømmen sier at kraniene i støvet symboliserer den ancestrale moren og faren. Men kraniene er også ominøse, for på Amerikaturen ble Freud redd for at Jung ubevisst ønsket ham død. Jung ville vekk fra det han så var Freuds religiøse besettelse etter å forklare alt utfra sex. Jung så at andre krefter var i spill, og tenkte at det ubevisste var positivt, og ikke negativt.

Materialet han tok fra mytologi, alkymi, og ritual, var arketypisk stoff, virket frem av sinn som ubøyelig søker seg mot helhet. Overgangsritualer, for eksempel, har myter om dragedreping eller å bli svelget av jorda. Disse er knyttet til arketypen helten. For Jung handlet ikke Ødipusmyten om forbudt seksualitet, men om heltens frigjøringskamp (Teigen, 2015).

Jung så også at psyken liker symmetri. I sin «forvirrede» tid tok han til å spontant male symmetriske bilder – de var mandalaer, symboler på helhet. Og jungianske analytikere ser at psyken kan nå symmetri med verden, i en meningsfull tilfeldighet som er utenfor årsak-virkning – en synkronisitet. Et eksempel er en pasient Jung hadde, som slet på grunn av sin smale, rasjonalistiske holdning til ting. I en time med ham fortalte hun en drøm hun hadde hatt, der hun mottok en gyllen skarabé.

Da hørte Jung svak tapping på vindusglasset. Han åpnet vinduet, og en stor, gyllen-grønn skarabé fløy inn. Kvinnen brøt sammen – og derfra skjøt behandlingen fart. Jung mente at psykologer ikke burde kvitte seg med en psykisk lidelse, men heller «erfare hva den betyr, hva den har å lære, se hva dens mening er» (Jung, 1964). Og alt psyken skaper, fra ritualer til synkronisiteter, er. De er psykiske aktualiteter, data man må lytte til, og skape mening ut av.

Følgelig var han ikke så opptatt av å formalisere sin metode. Noen jungianere har prøvd å passe ham inn i vår nevrosentriske tid, og trukket paralleller mellom individuasjon og kompleksitetsteori, og mellom arketyper og kortikal søyleorganisasjon. Mens det har vært ok forsøk på å forene Freud med nevrovitenskap, med hans hydrauliske modell på sinnet (Carhart-Harris og Friston, 2010), er det vanskeligere å gjøre med Jung. Men, mens Freud var, i forhold til sin samtid, vitenskapelig sofistikert, var Jung filosofisk sofistikert (Palmer, 2001). Så hvorfor gjøre det?

Stefan Hjort går 4. semester på profesjonsstudiet i psykologi.

Litteratur

Carhart-Harris, R. og Friston, K. J. (2010). The default-mode, ego-functions and free-energy: a neurobiological account of Freudian ideas. Brain, 133, 4, s. 1265–1283, https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awq010.

Forrester, John. (1990). The Seductions of Psychoanalysis. Cambridge University Press.

Jung, C. G. og Jaffé, Aniela. (1962; 1989). Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Vintage books.

Jung, C. G. (1964). The state of psychotherapy today. In H. Read, M. Fordham, & G. Adler (Eds.) The Collected Works of C. G. Jung (10, s. 157-173)

Palmer, Kent. (2001). Idea, Essence, Existence and Archetype. Hentet fra http://archonic.net/ia00V03.pdf, 2.11.18.

Teigen, Karl Halvor. (2015). En psykologihistorie. Fagbokforlaget.

Bilder

LOwens [profil på Wikipedia]. (1.8.1991). The Red Book (Liber Novus) by C. G. Jung, resting on Jung office desk. Wikipedia Commons.

(5.8.2009). Mandala made by a Jung’s unknown patient before 1929. Wikipedia Commons.


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