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Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 554

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 595

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 535

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 544

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 952

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 972

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 984

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 995

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::current() should either be compatible with Iterator::current(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 151

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::next() should either be compatible with Iterator::next(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 175

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::key() should either be compatible with Iterator::key(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 164

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::valid() should either be compatible with Iterator::valid(): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 186

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::rewind() should either be compatible with Iterator::rewind(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 138

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetExists($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 75

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetGet($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 89

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetSet($index, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 110

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetUnset($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 127

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::count() should either be compatible with Countable::count(): int, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 199

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Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 395

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 387

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 381

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 399

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 78

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 72

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Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 82

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Gutenberg_Available_Extensions::$wpcom_is_site_specific_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/gutenberg-available-extensions.php on line 20

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Subscribers::$wpcom_is_wpcom_only_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/subscribers.php on line 15

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_google_map::$default_values is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-google-map.php on line 33

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_header_model_class::$topbar_nbwrapper_container_class is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

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Du må ikke sitte trygt i ditt hjem – Speilvendt
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Du må ikke sitte trygt i ditt hjem


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Ville du gitt jakken din til en liten gutt som satt skjelvende og alene på et busstopp? Dette er spørsmålet som over natten har vekket Norges engasjement, oppmerksomhet og giverglede. 

maxresdefault

I skrivende stund har reklamevideoen av kalde Johannes nådd nesten 5,5 millioner visninger på Youtube. Det er to døgn siden SOS-barnebyer lastet opp videoen. Med skjult kamera har man fanget forbipasserendes reaksjon på hutring og klapring med tenner fra den lille gutten. Og folk stanser opp, de spør hvordan det går, hvordan han havnet her, og kler av seg sine skjerf og jakker som legges rundt ham. Som seere spør vi oss selv hva vi ville gjort i samme situasjon. Hadde jeg plantet øyne og fingre i smarttelefonen min og sjekket likes, snaps og rutetider i stedet? Ville jeg ofret jakken min og selv blitt den frysende?

Filmsnutten er ikke lenger enn to og et halvt minutt, likevel treffer den oss, betydelig, og på mange plan. For i den ser vi en gutt vi kan identifisere oss med, vi ser en situasjon som like godt kunne vært vår egen, stående på et busstopp en grå og dryppende regndag.

Viktigheten av det nære

Et av de mest elementære nyhetskriterier som ligger til grunn for suksess og oppmerksomhet, er nettopp geografisk nærhet. En historie man kan relatere seg til, som konkretiseres og fanges i individ en føler tilknytning til.

Én dag før SOS-barnebyer lastet opp sin video på Youtube, skrev Jan Egeland en kronikk i Aftenposten; Hvorfor blir vi ikke opprørt? Den tok for seg krigen i Syria, og hvordan en hel generasjons framgang er blitt nullstilt og revet bort. I følge Egeland står vi overfor den verste krigen, flyktningkatastrofen og overgrepsbølgen på flere tiår. Syria er en blodig retur til 1990-tallets mørkeste perioder, med paralleller til folkemordene i Rwanda og Jugoslavia-krigene. Hvorfor blir vi ikke opprørt? Ti millioner sivile og uskyldige mennesker er rammet av vold, mens store deler av verden gjør lite eller ingenting.

I en FN-rapport som ble offentliggjort tidligere denne måneden, kommer det frem at både myndighetene og opprørerne står bak overgrep mot barn. Barn har opplevd tortur, de blir brukt som levende skjold og rekrutteres til krigshandlinger. «Den lidelsen som barn har blitt utsatt for i Syria, siden denne konflikten brøt ut, og som er dokumentert i denne rapporten, er ubeskrivelig og uakseptabel», heter det i rapporten.

Likevel måtte det en kald norsk gutt i et busstopp på St. Hanshaugen i Oslo til for at det virkelig tok pusten fra folk. Tårene, omsorgen, samvittigheten og viljen til virkelig å gi, kom som følger av reklamen om Johannes. Vi trengte en konkret person å identifisere oss med, framfor distanserte tv-bilder og en abstrakt flyktningestrøm. For bilder som skriker til oss gjennom radioer og nettaviser vekker også reaksjoner, men de er vonde i sin framtoning, det er våre negative emosjoner de berører. Men negative emosjoner har i hovedsak vist seg mest effektive dersom man ser en direkte link mellom det å handle og løsningen på et problem (Murray, 2013). I jungelen av utallige krigsbilder og humanitære katastrofer, har man vanskelig for å se konkrete resultater av hjelp man måtte komme til å gi. Det er en sirkel uten ende, hvor katastrofens uendelige rundgang og behovet for penger aldri tar slutt.

Menneskets iboende godhet

Reklameindustrien har i større og større grad lært seg sin psykologi, og valgt å vektlegge budskapene som vekker positive emosjoner hos oss som mottakere. De ønsker å skape vilje til handling gjennom positiv emosjonsvekkende kommunikasjon. Forskning har vist at varme og kompetanse er to av de viktigste faktorene som påvirker vår bedømmelse av mennesker og organisasjoner, særlig sammen vekker de aktive atferdsresponser, blant annet ønsket om å hjelpe. Dette er prosesser som ligger grunnleggende i oss som mennesker. Vi liker å tro at vi er ekstremt autonome og kreative som individer, og til en viss grad er også dette sant. Likevel vitner evolusjonspsykologien om hvordan vi til alle tider bare har kunnet overleve i organiserte grupper og i flokk. Vårt behov for tilhørighet og samhold er forankret i våre gener gjennom generasjoner av overlevelse. Baumeister og Leary (1995) peker på hvordan gruppesolidaritet gir oss mulighet til å dele matressurser, beskyttelse, partnertilgang og nærhet til vår utvidede slekt. Det er altså sentralt for den menneskelige natur å hjelpe andre. Evolusjonspsykologer hevder videre at vår evne til å føle empati og sympati, er mekanismer som har sikret en slik overlevelse i grupper. Ikke bare overfor våre slektninger, dog slike følelser her er sterkest, men overfor alle medlemmer av vår art. Slik blir vår altruisme et sosialt lim for å opprettholde våre komplekse korporative strukturer for å sikre overlevelse av arten.

Den nylige oppdagelsen av «speilnevroner» har i denne sammenheng vært viktig for fysiologisk å forankre en slik teoretisk forklaring. Man tror at nevronene fasiliterer imitasjon og forståelse ved at observerte bevegelser knyttes til egen erfart kunnskap. Altså vil det å se noen lide, aktivere den samme nevrale strukturen som responderer når vi selv lider på samme måte.

I løpet av de siste årene har 61 journalister blitt drept i Syria i følge The Committee to Protect Journalists, mennesker hvis jobb var å formidle grusomhetene på et informativt og ærlig grunnlag, men med et håp om å vekke engasjement og handling i andre deler av verden. Men nedbombede bygninger, blodige hender, barn uten foreldre, og sykehus jevnet med jorden, er dessverre blitt et vanlig syn for en med Internett eller TV. Det foregår rundt oss, til alle døgnets tider. Våre timer, dager og netter kan fylles med krigsscener og kamprop utenfor parlamentsbygninger om vi bare søker til de rette kildene. Dette tåkelegger budskap fra kriger som den i Syria. Et slør av kjedsommelighet, likegyldighet og hverdagslighet legger seg foran øynene våre, uten at vi alltid er villig til å erkjenne det. Likevel speiles dette gjennom vår handling og atferd. Eller rettere sagt, mangelen på det. For vår genetiske altruisme og evne til handlingsstyrende sympati avhenger av hvor stor vår emosjonelle respons er, og dessverre ikke det konkrete omfanget av behovet for hjelp. Ofte har det som vekker vår emosjonelle respons, frustrerende lite til felles med den faktiske størrelsen av lidelse og behovet for hjelp.

Oss og dem

Skjermdump, YoutubeI lys av dette kan vi vende tilbake til et lite barn i Norge, som sittende på et busstopp har vært med å skape en bro til krigsherjede Midtøsten. I oss vekkes sympati og omsorg for et barn vi nå har et ansikt på, som gjennom viljen til å gi, overføres til små gutter og jenter uten ansikt og navn. Det diffuse og distanserte rives løs fra sin fremmedhet, og presses på oss i noe som er nært og uunngåelig. Osloborgernes gavmildhet varmer oss, vi blir rørt av deres omsorg. Et interessant spørsmål å stille seg, er hvorvidt gleden over det å se nordmenn gi, tradisjonelt stemplet som kalde og lukkede, også i seg selv er med på å vekke positive responser og følelser i oss. Er det ene og alene vissheten om barna i Syria som treffer oss, eller handler også noe av nerven om oss selv, vårt kollektive selvbilde og hvor gode vi kan være?

Uavhengig av årsak for våre responser og emosjoner, er dette en reklame som i stor grad har ført til atferdsendring og handling. Vi har trådd ut av likegyldighet og glemsel, sofasympati og facebookaksjonering, og virkelig bidratt. Etter bare ett døgn kunne informasjonssjef i SOS-barnebyer, Synne Rønning, fortelle at kampanjen hadde nådd nesten 1,7 millioner kroner i donasjoner.

Resultatet er uklanderlig og over all forventning. Ingen kan nekte for at «Johannes-effekten» ikke har bidratt i stor grad til bevisstgjøring og hjelp til et desperat Syria. Likevel er det viktig å stille noen kritiske spørsmål omkring våre egne holdninger og reaksjonsmønstre. Hvorfor må det en etnisk norsk gutt på et busstopp i Oslo til for at vi handler? Hva kan vi gjøre for at vi slutter å distansere oss fra fremmede mennesker i katastroferammede land? Hvordan kan nyhetsverdien fra Syria overstige avkledde semi-kjendiser og de nyeste babyene fra Europas kongehus? Medias fundamentale ansvar når det kommer til hvilke saker de velger å vektlegge, er ikke til å ignorere, likevel må en endring i oss selv også finne sted. I individuelle prosesser som omhandler sympati og handling, bør vi søke og lytte etter genuine responser, også når behovet for hjelp er preget av avstand. For selv om krigskaos og redsel skjer milevis fra våre egne stuer, selv om det er mennesker uten identitet og kjente språk, krever også dette sårt vår hjelp. Øverlands bønn, Du må ikke sove, er preget av repetisjon og hverdagslighet. Det er et dikt gjentatt og falmet, både av tid og av ord. Budskapets tyngde bør vi likevel aldri tillate oss å glemme, for også i dag brenner Europa.

 

Referanser

Murray, P. (2013, 12. september). Understanding the rational and emotional foundations of consumer behavior. Lokalisert 21. februar 2014 på http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/inside-the-consumer-mind/201309/how-video-message-evokes-emotion-and-arouses-response

Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497- 529.

 


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