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Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 554

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 595

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 535

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 544

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 952

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 972

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 984

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 995

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::current() should either be compatible with Iterator::current(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 151

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::next() should either be compatible with Iterator::next(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 175

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::key() should either be compatible with Iterator::key(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 164

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::valid() should either be compatible with Iterator::valid(): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 186

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::rewind() should either be compatible with Iterator::rewind(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 138

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetExists($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 75

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetGet($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 89

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetSet($index, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 110

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetUnset($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 127

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::count() should either be compatible with Countable::count(): int, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 199

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$fields is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields.php on line 138

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Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 395

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 387

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 381

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 399

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 78

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 72

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 59

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 82

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Tweetstorm_Gather::$is_wpcom is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/class-wpcom-rest-api-v2-endpoint-tweetstorm-gather.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Gutenberg_Available_Extensions::$wpcom_is_site_specific_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/gutenberg-available-extensions.php on line 20

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Memberships::$wpcom_is_wpcom_only_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/memberships.php on line 23

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Memberships::$wpcom_is_site_specific_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/memberships.php on line 24

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Subscribers::$wpcom_is_wpcom_only_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/subscribers.php on line 15

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_resources_styles::$_resouces_version is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/class-fire-resources_styles.php on line 35

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_oembed::$width is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-oembed.php on line 31

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_oembed::$height is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-oembed.php on line 32

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_google_map::$default_values is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-google-map.php on line 33

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_f is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 153

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property MO::$_gettext_select_plural_form is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/translations.php on line 293

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Block_Type::$plan_check is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-type.php on line 284

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_header_model_class::$topbar_nbwrapper_container_class is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

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Et radikalt perspektiv. – Speilvendt
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Et radikalt perspektiv.


Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_thumbnail_model_class::$lighbox_url is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

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TEKST ADRIAN LØSETH WAADE

Hva tenker du hvis jeg sier at det selvet du tror du har, ikke finnes? Hva om jeg også sier at det å erfare dette kan ha en dypt frigjørende psykologisk effekt? Kanskje du blir fylt av angst? Eller kanskje du blir lett irritert, og tenker at dette er nonsens? Eller i hvert fall at det er en slags abstrakt, filosofisk idé med lite relevans for deg og ditt liv? Fullt forståelig i så fall, og skal man dømme etter hvor mye taletid dette konseptet får, deles denne oppfatningen av de fleste. Man hører ikke ofte på Lindmo at selvet ikke eksisterer, men etter min oppfatning heller ikke i psykologiske kretser. 

Jeg vil argumentere for at viktigheten av denne idéen står i voldsom kontrast til oppmerksomheten den får, og at den burde stå sentralt i fagfeltet som beskjeftiger seg med selvet, nemlig psykologien. Om ikke annet burde positiv psykologi kaste seg over dette med hud og hår. Uansett er dette noe jeg synes det er verdt å bruke både min egen og andres tid på, og denne teksten er et forsøk på nettopp det.

Til tross for den begrensede utbredelsen er det ingenting nytt ved idéen om det ikke-eksisterende selvet. Man kan til og med hevde at det til en viss grad er «i vinden», for eksempel gjennom den populære meditasjonsappen Waking Up. Det er ikke godt å si hvor mange mennesker som går rundt og er opptatt av akkurat dette spesifikke aspektet ved mindfulness. Hvis jeg skal gjette: relativt få, men det er en stor glede om jeg tar feil. 

Like fullt vil jeg insistere på at vi her har muligheten til å plukke opp en psykologisk innsikt fra de mystiske tradisjonene som kanskje kan redde oss fra oss selv.

Konseptet ikke-selv er for noen kanskje knyttet til buddhisme. En del mennesker i vesten har blitt glade i buddhismen. Denne vennlige religionen som ikke er en religion, som har en historisk person som høyeste autoritet i stedet for en gudeskikkelse. Meditasjon og mindfulness, importert fra buddhismen, har blitt populært både i og utenfor den kliniske psykologien. Jon Kabat-Zinn etablerte mindfulnessbasert stressreduksjon som behandlingsform på 70-tallet, og det finnes nå en rekke tilnærminger som gjør bruk av mindfulness i behandling av psykiske lidelser. Det er flott, og nyttig. Men er det alt?

I terapi jobber man ofte med å oppnå et mer velfungerende selv. En solid og positiv følelse av selvet antas å ligge til grunn for mental velvære og god psykisk funksjon. På den andre siden kan et svakt, utydelig eller forstyrret selv være knyttet til en rekke ulike psykiske lidelser. Hvordan kan da et fravær av selvet være adaptivt? Joseph Campbell skriver: «The psychotic drowns in the same waters as the mystic swims with delight». Dette er en imponerende observasjon, og peker muligens på dette paradokset. 

Det er vanskelig å si nøyaktig hva som skiller en psykose fra en erfaring av ikke-selv. En forskjell er at selektiv dekonstruksjon av det opplevde selvet (egentlig oppheving av illusjonen om det solide subjekt, som aldri fantes i utgangspunktet), ser ut til å være fullt kompatibelt med vanlig fungering (kanskje til og med bedre fungering). Det er nok også ofte en forskjell med tanke på bevissthetsinnhold, men ikke nødvendigvis. Kanskje den viktigste forskjellen handler om grad av fusjon med tanker. En psykotisk person vet ikke at hen er psykotisk, på samme måte som en drømmende ikke vet at hen drømmer. Akkurat som det er mulig å våkne fra en drøm og innse drømmens natur, kan man våkne fra identifikasjon med bevissthetsinnhold og innse bevissthetens natur. Kanskje den beste måten å beskrive det på er at det medfører et slags skifte av perspektiv. En parafrasering av en zen-mesters beskrivelse er som følger: «First there was a mountain, then there was no mountain, then there is». Sagt på en annen måte: Ting er akkurat som før, bare annerledes. 

Jeg antar at dette nå framstår vagt, lite intuitivt og kanskje irrelevant. Hvorfor bry seg med noe som virker så til de grader virkelighetsfjernt og abstrakt? Jeg tror faktisk ikke det er mulig å overbevise noen om viktigheten av dette uten at vedkommende gjennom en eller annen kontemplativ, introspektiv praksis får erfare det selv (sannhetsgehalten kan vi på den annen side vurdere ved hjelp av fysikk, filosofi og kognitiv nevrovitenskap). Like fullt vil jeg insistere på at vi her har muligheten til å plukke opp en psykologisk innsikt fra de mystiske tradisjonene som kanskje kan redde oss fra oss selv. 

Vi har på sett og vis mestret den ytre verden. Som Yuval Noah Harari forteller oss er pest, krig, sult og død på vikende front. Det som kanskje i aller størst grad truer oss nå, er våre idéer. Idéer om oss selv og andre. Så kanskje løsningen finnes i en idé? Riktignok en radikal en, og ikke av den sorten vi er vant med. Idéen jeg snakker om er ganske enkel å undersøke, å virkelig undersøke hva vi snakker om når vi snakker om meg. Blir man oppriktig interessert i å finne dette ut, kan det hende at man finner en ny opplevelse av seg selv i verden. Eller kanskje bare verden? Og med tanke på hvor slitsomt det er å være et meg, er kanskje bare verden å foretrekke?

Adrian Løseth Waade går 4. semester på profesjonsstudiet i psykologi


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