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Flosshatt og formue – Speilvendt
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Flosshatt og formue


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Estetikk er ikke nødvendigvis synonymt med «det vakre», det kan vel så gjerne være det kraftfulle, det potente, det maskuline. Men hva når arkitekturen ikke bare blir pompøs, men direkte fiendtlig mot de svakeste?

Skjermbilde 2017-06-07 kl. 09.52.21

Tekst: Rune Braaten
Illustrasjon: Cristopher Wirsching

Parfyme og penisforlengere
Estetikk. Ordet smaker rosa og lukter parfymen til en ungpike som løper med flagrende hår gjennom en blomstereng en varm sommerdag. Estetikk er noe kvinnelig, med innslag fra interiørblogger og dansk design. Noe langt mer sofistikert enn shabby chic-stilen som var populær for noen år siden, en stil som jeg selv aldri klarte å få mer enn halvveis til – det ble bare shabby og lite chic.

Men estetikk er ikke forbeholdt den kvinnelige delen av befolkningen. Det finnes en egen maskulin estetikk, tidvis uttrykt som homoerotisk nazi-estetikk og tidvis som den voldsestetikken Quentin Tarantino presenterer i sine filmer. Finnes det en maskulin estetikk som løfter seg ut av den rammen som defineres mellom lær og hollywoodsk vold?

Svaret er naturligvis ja – når menn skal produsere noe av estetisk verdi foretrekker de å bygge. Hva er vel mer naturlig for mannen enn å reise byggverk, jo høyere jo bedre – en penisforlenger som strekker seg mot skyene?Så fjernsynstårnet i Toronto var verdens høyeste byggverk? Not for long, comrades! Så tvillingtårnene i Kuala Lumpur slo et par rekorder? La oss bygge noe enda høyere! Så det finnes en skyskraper i Dubai som er verdens høyeste? La oss planlegge noe enda høyere!

Den bibelske fortellingen om Babels tårn treffer spikeren på hodet, for å holde oss til byggeindustriens metaforer. And so the story goes – la oss lage noe som er enda lengre, enda høyere, enda mer… potent? Og for all del, spar oss for unødvendig mye pynt – byggverkene skal helst ha et kaldt, industrielt preg, for å understreke effekten av formålsrettethet og effektivitet. Eller om man vil være litt mer infam: La oss bygge en penisforlenger som utstråler den samme 5,4-minutters effektiviteten som kjennetegner varigheten av et gjennomsnittlig samleie (ja, du finner den vitenskapelige artikkelen fra 2005 i kildelisten). Estetikk er ikke nødvendigvis synonymt med «det vakre», det kan vel så gjerne være det kraftfulle, det potente, det maskuline.

Ingen veier fører til Stavanger
På tide å sette provokatørhatten på hodet og trekke den godt ned over ørene: Det er spesielt én norsk by som de siste årene har stått som eksponent for en arkitekturstil som best kan karakteriseres som neo-fascistisk – nemlig den lille kystbyen Stavanger.

Den nærmeste sammenligningen er den arkitektoniske transformasjonen Mussolini gjennomførte i Roma i årene før andre verdenskrig; i området EUR utenfor Roma kan man beskue en stramt regissert arkitektur med store rene flater og gjentagende mønstre, i en arkitekturstil kalt italiensk rasjonalisme. Og der det tidligere var relativt trange gater – riktignok med en anselig mengde romersk arkitektur under overflaten – valgte Mussolini å anlegge den brede paradegaten Via dei Fori Imperiale, dekket med asfalt i beste kvalitet, slik at det ble tilstrekkelig med plass til både stridsvogner og jublende folkemasser under militærparadene.

Stavanger har riktignok ingen tradisjon for militærparader, muligens fordi det er for trangt i bygatene til at to barnevogner uproblematisk kan passere hverandre, hvor mye verre er det ikke da å skulle kjøre stridsvogner i middelaldergatene? Hvor liten den lille kystbyen faktisk er, innser man ikke før man spaserer over Rådhusplassen i Stavanger. Rådhusplassen er ikke større enn at framkommeligheten blir betydelig innskrenket dersom man parkerer mer enn seks biler på plassen.

Bevares, Stavanger er jo koselig og idyllisk, men storslagent er neppe den mest treffende beskrivelsen. Man kan spørre seg hva som var tanken bak å kalle plassen for Rådhusplassen, men takk og pris at man ikke samtidig la til floskelen om at dette skulle være «byens storstue».

Vent, der tok jeg visst feil – man har brukt klisjeen «byens storstue» også i Stavanger, men da om torget, eller Tusenårsstedet som man ynder å kalle det i kommunalt språk. Som det heter i egenpresentasjonen til Landskapsfabrikken, firmaet som vant konkurransen om Stavangers «tusenårssted» med sitt forslag «Piazza Siddisi»: «Prosjektet restaurerer på mange måter det opprinnelige bylandskapet. Torgets gulv består av granittplater i rubbelmønster. Gulvet er robust og gir komfort og tilgjengelighet for alle brukergrupper. Dette er byens storstue hvor alle har plass». De kunne kanskje ha endret den siste setningen til «Dette er byens storstue hvor alle har plass, men ingen oppholder seg».

Eliten bestemmer
Eldre folk i Stavanger har fremdeles minner om hvordan de kunne sitte i de vindskjeve torgtrappene og skrelle reker eller spise jordbær en varm sommerdag, i det minste om de husker mer enn omtrent ti år tilbake i tid. Ti år er knapt mer enn et øyeblikk i historiens langsomme kvern, men småbyens stormannsgale politikere og planleggere rekker å gjøre mer skade i løpet av et par langtrukne bystyremøter og budsjettbehandlinger enn det sjøsprøyten fra nordvest klarer i løpet av et par hundre år.

Folk flest liker små trehus med rutete vinduer, og som forventet blir alle innvendinger mot torgets nye utforming avfeid med at man bare må gi det litt tid – gjerne et par generasjoner – så er smaken tilstrekkelig utviklet til at man liker det. Det er elitens privilegium å kunne avvise den lille manns sutring over at byen er blitt så lite pen. Gjennom velformulerte rapporter og saksdokumenter lange som en novellesamling skal folkeopinionen kveles. Språket har alltid vært overmaktens billigste og lettest tilgjengelige våpen i kampen mot massenes dårlige smak.

Nåvel, så Stavanger har mistet sin småbysjarm og har fått et torg som ikke brukes av andre enn en statue av en middelaldrende mann med flosshatt og formue. Så kan man le av småbyen Stavanger som har dette veslevoksne behovet for å bli større enn seg selv, gjennom forsøkene på å etablere monumentalarkitektur. Men hva når arkitekturen ikke bare blir pompøs, men direkte fiendtlig mot de svakeste? Hva gjør dette med det offentlige byrommet, og hva gjør det med oss som oppholder oss der?

Mann mot arkitektur
Byen består ikke av bygninger, men mennesker. Ingenting føles mer ensomt enn å vandre gjennom Londons finansdistrikt en sen aften. Knapt et menneske å se, og det er kun dine egne skritt som gir gjenlyd fra de tomme bygningene.

Byrommet har tradisjonelt vært et fellesområde – en allmenning, og ikke kun en tumleplass for byens bedrestilte borgere. I dag er vi imidlertid blitt stadig flinkere til å holde de ubemidlede og andre uønskede eksistenser borte fra gatebildet. Det er ikke lenger tilstrekkelig med forordninger og kommunale vedtak – i løpet av de siste årene har vi sett en stadig sterkere framvekst av det vi kaller fiendtlig arkitektur.

Fiendtlig arkitektur kan defineres som den arkitekturen som ikke har til hensikt å fylle det menneskelige behovet for beskyttelse og hvile, men har som et av sine viktigste formål å definere bort deler av befolkningen som brukere av arkitekturen. Hvordan skal uteliggeren kunne sove på en benk som har sprosser på midten? Regulære lønnsmottakere kan fremdeles sitte på benken og nyte utsikten til Barcode eller en annen av Oslos nye arkitektoniske hotspots, men kan man legge seg langflat på benken og ta seg en lur? Nei, ikke med mindre man har en viss evne til akrobatikk og ingen angst for å bli sittende fast i konstruksjonen.

Fiendtlig arkitektur kan defineres som den arkitekturen som ikke har til hensikt å fylle det menneskelige behovet for beskyttelse og hvile, men har som et av sine viktigste formål å definere bort deler av befolkningen som brukere av arkitekturen.

Svenske Fredrik Edin skrev sin masteroppgave om fiendtlig arkitektur, og han poengterer at det ligger en ideologi bak framveksten av fiendtlig arkitektur: De uønskede skal oppleve seg som uønskede, og sosiale problemer løses gjennom å skjule dem. Hva sier så psykologene om byrommet?

Emnet burde invitere til betraktninger både ut fra persepsjonsteori og sosialpsykologi, men psykologers interesse for arkitektur vekkes kanskje kun når de ser laboratorierotter som prøver å navigere gjennom en labyrint. Enkelte psykologer har tatt opp temaet, men i det store og hele sitter man igjen med et inntrykk av at transformasjonen av byrommet fra fellesrom til ekskluderende soner blir et for stort tema å ta opp.

Og der tar jeg av meg provokatørhatten igjen, og tar på meg den hatten av aluminiumsfolie jeg vanligvis bruker. Så står det bare igjen å spørre seg selv: Har jeg klart å fornærme et tilstrekkelig bredt utvalg av befolkningen? Eller har jeg bare nappet overmakten i ermet, omtrent som en masete unge? Jeg skulle gjerne lagt meg på en benk for å fundere litt over dette, men da må jeg først bare finne en benk som faktisk er ment å fungere som benk.

 

Rune Braaten går 5. semester på profesjonsstudiet i psykologi ved UiO.

Kilder:

https://www.bostonglobe.com/ideas/2014/07/12/the-roman-architecture-mussolini-still-standing/csZ70EN2fTnUUNqX0kRM9K/story.html

http://www.budstikka.no/sandvika/arkitektur/her-far-du-ikke-sove/s/5-55-116864

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tallest_buildings_and_structures

https://fredrikedin.wordpress.com/2014/09/30/den-harskande-klassens-bank/

http://landskapsfabrikken.no/prosjekter/tusenarsstedet_i_stavanger_torget_og_vagen

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16422843

https://www.nrk.no/kultur/vet-du-hvorfor-denne-benken-ser-sann-ut_-1.12461221

http://psykologtidsskriftet.no/index.php?seks_id=28381&a=2

http://www.psykologforeningen.no/publikum/blogger/pingpong/Fiendtlig-og-trygt

http://www.stavanger.kommune.no/PageFiles/4768/Stedsanalyser/Sentrumshalvøya%202222%20stedsanalyse%202013.pdf

http://www.vl.no/reportasjer/reportasje/dette-er-ikke-en-seng-1.356832

 

 

 


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