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Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 535

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 544

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Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetUnset($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 127

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Gutar er blå, jenter er rosa – Speilvendt
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Gutar er blå, jenter er rosa


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Kva er det eigentleg som gjer at vaksne menneske lar seg provosere av Sjørøvaregg og seks år gamle gutar som held kvarandre i hendene?

Illustrasjon: Mathias Frøyhaug.
Illustrasjon: Mathias Frøyhaug.

Kjønn er alltid i rommet

I haust steig temperaturen nokre gradar i kommentarfelt og rundt lunsjbord då ein norsk matvareprodusent lanserte Sjørøvaregg og Prinsesseegg. Nokre dagar tidlegare slo avisene stort opp at gutar i norske skular leier kvarandre i hendene og snakkar om kjensler i større grad enn tidlegare. Psykolog Nils-Eide Midtsand reagerte i Aftenposten på det han kalla ”framelsking av det feminine” og åtvara mot å undertrykke gutar sin trang til vill fysisk leik.

Ei viktig utviklingsoppgåve i ungdomsåra er å finne svar på spørsmålet ”Kven er eg?”. Å etablere ei meiningsfull forståing av seg sjølv som kjønn er ifølgje psykologspesialist Line Aanerød essensielt for psykisk helse.

– Kjønn er alltid i rommet. Det går ikkje an å snakke om kjønn som noko separat, noko som av og til blir relevant i ein terapisamtale dersom det viser seg at det er problem knytt til kjønnsidentitet eller kjønnsuttrykk. Det seier Line Halvorsrud, leiar i Skeiv Ungdom, som var ein av mange som møtte opp då psykolog og sexolog Elsa Almås gjesta Psykologisk Institutt ved UiO i september. Under samtalen om kjønnsmangfald i terapirommet understreka Almås at kjønn er noko alle psykologar bør vere opptekne av, sidan alle har ein kjønnsidentitet. Saman med mannen, lege Esben Esther Pirelli Benestad, har ho kartlagt sju måtar å vere og gjere kjønn på; blant desse hokjønn, hankjønn, interkjønn og transkjønn.

Kjønn som identitetsmarkør

– Dersom eg kom til eit land der dei delte menneska inn i ”dei låge” og ”dei høge”, ville eg raskt bli oppteken av at eg er så låg. Dersom det i tillegg var assosiert andre eigenskapar med det å vere låg enn med å vere høg, ville min identitet som låg bli essensiell for å forstå meg sjølv.

Det er Luca Dalen Espseth, bloggar, transmann og kjønnspolitisk rådgivar i LLH som bruker fysisk høgde for å illustrere si forståing av kjønn. Ved første augekast kan det verke paradoksalt at Espseth argumenterer for at kjønn bør ha mindre å seie for korleis vi forstår oss sjølv og andre, samstundes som han sjølv har valt å gjennomgå hormonell behandling for å endre kjønnsuttrykket sitt. Fram til han var tjue år levde han som kvinne, og han fortel at det å stadig bli konfrontert med ein kvinneleg identitet han ikkje kjente seg igjen i, gjorde at ubehaget ikkje blei til å halde ut:

– Eg hugsar spesielt godt éin gong, då vi skulle ha juleball i sjuandeklasse. Eg sto i ein klesbutikk og berre såg over i guteavdelinga og tenkte ’Kvifor kan ikkje eg berre få lov til å ha på meg dress?!’ Så innsåg eg at eg berre ikkje kunne seie det høgt, for det er som å vere tidenes største freak viss du seier at du har lyst til å ha på deg dress. Eg endte opp med ein litt trang kjole med stroppar, og så gjekk eg ut i verden og visste at alle kunne sjå ubehaget mitt. Dei såg at eg var ein freak. Og folk sa at eg såg så flott ut, men eg tenkte at det ikkje var sant, og eg lurte på kvifor dei sa det. Og eg sto der, og all sosial status var berre tapt. Eg var jo kul til vanleg.

Skjermbilde 2014-06-02 kl. 11.02.27
Foto: Bendik Hattvang Larsen

John Money og ei jente utan penis

Espseth si forteljing om juleballkjolen er berre eit døme på situasjonar som kan oppstå når eigenopplevinga til ein person ikkje samsvarer med korleis andre oppfattar ein. John Money er eit kjent namn i litteraturen om kjønnsidentitet. På 1950-talet forska psykologiprofessoren ut frå ein idé om at kjønnsidentitet i hovudsak er sosialt bestemt; at korleis barn blir møtt av omgivnadane bestemmer om dei vil oppleve seg sjølv som kvinne eller mann. I 1966 blei Money kontakta av eit fortvilt foreldrepar som lurte på kva dei skulle gjere etter at ei ulukke i samband med omskjering hadde etterlatt sonen deira utan penis. Money tilrådde foreldra å oppdra sonen som ei jente, og etter ei kartlegging elleve år seinare konkluderte Money med at Brian hadde funne seg vel til rette med sin nye identitet som Brenda. Det faktum at Brenda hadde ein einegga tvilling som blei oppdratt som gut, gjorde det heile til eit sterkt argument for at kjønnsidentitet er eit formbart produkt av sosialisering. Suksesshistoria snudde brått da professorane Milton Diamond og Keith Sigmundson i 1997 publiserte ein rapport som avdekka at Brenda ved fjortenårsalderen tok namnet David og gjennomgjekk kirurgi for å ta tilbake ein mannleg identitet.

Når naturen bryt med kategoriane

Historia om David Reimer var eit tilbakeslag for dei som målbar idéen om at kjønnsidentitet utelukkande er eit resultat av ytre påverknad. Er det i realiteten biologar og hjerneforskarar som kan finne svaret på kva kjønn grunnleggande sett er? Nei, meiner historikar og ekspert på anatomiens historie Alice Dreger. Ho peiker på at det finst mange fleire moglege kombinasjonar av kjønnskromosoma enn XX og XY, og at ulike hormonnivå i fosterlivet kan skape ulike kjønnsuttrykk. Dreger fortel om ein nittenåring som levde som mann heilt fram til nittenårsalderen – då ein helsesjekk avdekka at han hadde eggstokkar og livmor i tillegg til penis og testiklar.

Psykologspesialist Line Aanerød åtvarar mot å tenkje at biologisk kjønn er ukomplisert.

– Kvart år blir 10-12 barn i Noreg fødde med kjønnsorgan som ein ikkje kan definere som klart kvinnelege eller mannlege. Ein vanleg term for fenomenet er intersex. Intersex utfordrar idéen om at vår todelte kjønnsforståing er naturgitt og viser at naturen ikkje opererer ut frå klart definerte kategoriar.

Nokre meiner at det finst to kjønn, Benestad Pirelli og Almås har identifisert sju, Espeseth samanliknar kjønn med storleik og meiner at det burde ha tilsvarande lite å seie for korleis vi forstår oss sjølv og andre. Éin ting er sikkert, og det er at vi burde ha fleire samtalar om det Almås og Pirelli kallar kjønnsbegeistring.


Artikkelen er basert på seminaret «Kjønnsmangfold i terapirommet» med Elsa Almås, Line Tangen Aanerød si forelesing om kjønnsidentitet i emnet PSY2103: Sexologi, samtale med Luca Dalen Espseth, og TED-forelesinga «Is Anatomy Destiny» av Alice Dreger.

Ordforklaringer:

  • Intersex: Ein person som er fødd med uklart biologisk kjønn, oftast kjønnsorgan som ikkje kan definerast som enten utelukkande kvinnelege eller utelukkande mannlege.
  • Transperson: Ein person som opplever at kjønnet dei har fått utdelt ikkje samsvarer med den psykologiske kjønnsidentiteten dei opplever.
  • Transseksuell: Den medisinske termen for ein person som ønskjer å leve som det motsette kjønn av det han eller ho er fødd som. I den psykiatriske diagnosemanualen DSM har transseksualisme koden F64. Trass i ordlyden er det ikkje vanleg å tenkje at transseksualisme har noko med seksualitet å gjere.
  • Kjønnsidentitet: Ei subjektiv oppleving av å vere eit kjønn som er sosialt meiningsfullt.
  • Transvestitt: Ein person som av og til kler seg i kleda til det motsette kjønn for å kjenne seg bra. Ikkje det same som ei vedvarande kjensle av å ønskje å leve som eit anna kjønn enn ein blei fødd som.
  • Kjønnsbekreftande behandling: Behandling (kirurgisk, hormonell og/eller psykologisk) som skal hjelpe ein person til å leve i samsvar med sin kjønnsidentitet. Dei fleste føretrekk denne termen framfor omgrepa kjønnskorrigerande behandling eller kjønnsskiftebehandling.

Vidare lesing og titting:

  • Intersexion: About intersex. 2012. En dokumentar av den første åpne intersex-personen i Australia, Mani Bruce Mitchell, som utforsker liva til intersexpersoner rundt omkring i verda.
  • Diane Ehrensaft: Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children. Guilford Publications 2007.
  • Kjønn i bevegelse. Elsa Almås og Esben Esther Benestad Pirelli. Universitetsforlaget 2001.

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