Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property wpdb::$categories is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 668

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property wpdb::$post2cat is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 668

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property wpdb::$link2cat is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 668

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 554

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 595

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 535

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 544

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 952

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 972

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 984

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 995

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::current() should either be compatible with Iterator::current(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 151

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::next() should either be compatible with Iterator::next(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 175

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::key() should either be compatible with Iterator::key(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 164

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::valid() should either be compatible with Iterator::valid(): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 186

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::rewind() should either be compatible with Iterator::rewind(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 138

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetExists($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 75

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetGet($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 89

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetSet($index, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 110

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetUnset($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 127

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::count() should either be compatible with Countable::count(): int, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 199

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$fields is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields.php on line 138

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_loop::$loops is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/loop.php on line 28

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$loop is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/loop.php on line 269

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$revisions is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/revisions.php on line 387

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_validation::$errors is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/validation.php on line 28

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$validation is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/validation.php on line 215

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_customizer::$preview_values is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/forms/form-customizer.php on line 28

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_customizer::$preview_fields is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/forms/form-customizer.php on line 29

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_customizer::$preview_errors is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/forms/form-customizer.php on line 30

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$form_front is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/forms/form-front.php on line 600

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_widget::$preview_values is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/forms/form-widget.php on line 34

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_widget::$preview_reference is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/forms/form-widget.php on line 35

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_widget::$preview_errors is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/forms/form-widget.php on line 36

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 395

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 387

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 381

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 399

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 78

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 72

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 59

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 82

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Shortcodes_Ultimate::$about_menu is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/shortcodes-ultimate/includes/class-shortcodes-ultimate.php on line 207

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Shortcodes_Ultimate::$unsafe_features_notice is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/shortcodes-ultimate/includes/class-shortcodes-ultimate.php on line 229

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Shortcodes_Ultimate::$widget is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/shortcodes-ultimate/includes/class-shortcodes-ultimate.php on line 256

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Automattic\Jetpack\Connection\Manager::$error_handler is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/vendor/automattic/jetpack-connection/src/class-manager.php on line 91

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Instagram_Gallery::$is_wpcom is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/class-wpcom-rest-api-v2-endpoint-instagram-gallery.php on line 23

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Mailchimp::$wpcom_is_wpcom_only_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/class-wpcom-rest-api-v2-endpoint-mailchimp.php on line 17

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Tweetstorm_Gather::$wpcom_is_wpcom_only_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/class-wpcom-rest-api-v2-endpoint-tweetstorm-gather.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Tweetstorm_Gather::$is_wpcom is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/class-wpcom-rest-api-v2-endpoint-tweetstorm-gather.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Gutenberg_Available_Extensions::$wpcom_is_site_specific_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/gutenberg-available-extensions.php on line 20

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Memberships::$wpcom_is_wpcom_only_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/memberships.php on line 23

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Memberships::$wpcom_is_site_specific_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/memberships.php on line 24

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Subscribers::$wpcom_is_wpcom_only_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/subscribers.php on line 15

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$is_overloaded is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_pos is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_f is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 153

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property MO::$_gettext_select_plural_form is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/translations.php on line 293

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Automattic\Jetpack\Sync\Queue::$random_int is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/vendor/automattic/jetpack-sync/src/class-queue.php on line 38

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Publicize_UI::$in_jetpack is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/modules/publicize.php on line 53

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$is_overloaded is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_pos is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_f is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 153

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property MO::$_gettext_select_plural_form is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/translations.php on line 293

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$is_overloaded is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_pos is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_f is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 153

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property MO::$_gettext_select_plural_form is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/translations.php on line 293

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_resources_scripts::$_resouces_version is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/class-fire-resources_scripts.php on line 20

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$is_overloaded is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_pos is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_f is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 153

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property MO::$_gettext_select_plural_form is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/translations.php on line 293

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_resources_styles::$_resouces_version is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/class-fire-resources_styles.php on line 35

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_Widget_Goodreads::$shelves is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/modules/widgets/goodreads.php on line 33

Deprecated: DateTime::__construct(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($datetime) of type string is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/script-loader.php on line 331

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$is_overloaded is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_pos is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_f is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 153

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_oembed::$width is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-oembed.php on line 31

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_oembed::$height is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-oembed.php on line 32

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_google_map::$default_values is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-google-map.php on line 33

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field__group::$have_rows is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-group.php on line 31

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$is_overloaded is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_pos is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_f is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 153

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property MO::$_gettext_select_plural_form is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/translations.php on line 293

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Block_Type::$plan_check is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-type.php on line 284

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Jetpack_Shortcode_Unavailable::$shortcodes is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/modules/shortcodes/unavailable.php on line 19

Deprecated: trim(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp.php on line 173

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Term::$object_id is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-term.php on line 198

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_header_model_class::$mobile_nbwrapper_class is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_header_model_class::$primary_nbwrapper_container_class is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_header_model_class::$topbar_nbwrapper_container_class is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_logo_model_class::$src is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_related_posts_model_class::$excerpt_length is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_related_posts_model_class::$media_cols is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_related_posts_model_class::$content_cols is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_related_posts_model_class::$element_width is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_Model::$inner_container_class is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283
Kontroll på kontinensen – Speilvendt
Deprecated: Implicit conversion from float 35.400000000000006 to int loses precision in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/functions-ccat.php on line 1638

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Deprecated: ltrim(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 3031

Deprecated: preg_split(): Passing null to parameter #3 ($limit) of type int is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/class.media-summary.php on line 420

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_Model::$args is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Kontroll på kontinensen


Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_thumbnail_model_class::$lighbox_url is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

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Inkontinens er et symptom som ikke synes, ikke høres, ikke kaller på medlidenhet og forståelse, men som bare … lukter.

 

Illustrasjon: Mathias Frøyhaug
Illustrasjon: Mathias Frøyhaug

 

Hvor vanlig er det at kvinnelige jagerflygere tisser på seg? Forskerne Fisher og Berg offentliggjorde i 1999 en undersøkelse der de presenterte svarene fra 274 kvinner som var i aktiv tjeneste i det amerikanske luftforsvaret. Resultatene viste at 26,3 % av kvinnene (72 av de 274) rapporterte om ufrivillig urinlekkasje, og av disse igjen var det 18,1 % (13 kvinner) som hadde opplevd det mens de fløy.

 

Formålet med undersøkelsen var å finne ut om de sterke kreftene man utsetter kroppen for ved jagerflyging ville føre til ufrivillig urinlekkasje hos kvinnelige piloter. Man skulle kanskje tro at det å utsette kroppen for krefter inntil 9G, samt det psykiske stresset det innebærer å manøvrere et jagerfly, kunne forklare den ufrivillige urinlekkasjen. Rapportens konklusjon virker kanskje derfor for mange overraskende: «The rate of urinary incontinence among female Air Force aircrew is similar to rates found in other surveys of the general population. Flying high-performance military aircraft did not affect the rate of incontinence.»

 

Fallet fra tronen I tidlige barneår kommer man en dag til det punkt der man oppdager at man er i stand til å kontrollere sin avføring, og dermed beherske verden. Pottetreningen er mer enn opptrening i selvkontroll – det er et av de sentrale stegene i den lange motbakken det er å minke avhengigheten av andre. Potten forvandles til en majestetisk trone, og er man heldig gir de velmenende og stolte foreldre belønning i form av et kosedyr eller en tøydukke som til forveksling likner Sigmund Freud. Man føler seg nesten voksen, og mener seg berettiget til å hånflire av småbarna som enda ikke behersker kunsten å kontrollere blære- og/eller tarmfunksjonen. På samme måte som det er et stort steg for barnet å klare seg uten bleia, er fallet tilsvarende stort den dagen man oppdager at man ikke lenger er i stand til å beherske de såkalte naturlige funksjoner, og dermed verden.

 

På samme måte som det er et stort steg for barnet å klare seg uten bleia, er fallet tilsvarende stort den dagen man oppdager at man ikke er i stand til å beherske de såkalte naturlige funksjoner, og dermed verden.

 

Hvem opplever inkontinens, og hvorfor? Inkontinens er avledet fra det latinske ordet «continere», som betyr «å inneholde». Inkontinens betyr med andre ord «å mangle evnen til å holde seg», eller sagt på en enklere måte: Man tisser på seg. Det danner seg lett en forestilling om at dette er noe kun små barn og eldre pleietrengende plages med, men at den som er ung, sunn og frisk ikke trenger å være nevneverdig bekymret. For det kan da umulig være vanlig at voksne folk tisser på seg? Det er imidlertid langt mer vanlig enn man skulle tro, og i Norge er det rapportert plager med urinlekkasje hos opp mot 30 % av alle voksne kvinner. Vi snakker med andre ord ikke om en eksotisk lidelse som kun rammer et forsvinnende lite mindretall. Det er langt flere kvinner enn menn som får dette problemet, noe som langt på vei kan forklares med de endringene en kvinnekropp gjennomgår under graviditet, fødsel og overgangsalder. For menn er bildet annerledes: «Lidelsen» er sjelden blant yngre menn, men øker gjerne når man kommer i 60-årene, og er typisk en følge av forstørret prostata.

 

Den største risikofaktoren er altså å være kvinne, men i tillegg er det enkelte yrkesgrupper som er spesielt utsatt: Lærere, sykepleiere og soldater er yrkesgrupper med høyere risiko for å utvikle inkontinens. Felles for disse yrkesgruppene er at de ikke alltid kan gå på do når de ønsker det, men må holde seg til et passende tidspunkt. Som en kuriositet kan det nevnes at også flyvertinner ligger høyt på statistikken over yrkesgrupper som rammes av ufrivillig urinlekkasje. Det som i hvert fall for et par generasjoner siden framstod som et av de mest glamorøse yrker en ung pike kunne drømme om, kunne altså i tillegg gi en ulempe man ikke snakket for høyt om.

 

Den største risikofaktoren er altså å være kvinne, men i tillegg er det enkelte yrkesgrupper som er spesielt utsatt: Lærere, sykepleiere og soldater er yrkesgrupper med høyere risiko for å utvikle inkontinens.

 

Det er to ulike typer urininkontinens: Stressinkontinens og urgeinkontinens.

 

«Jeg ler så jeg tisser på meg!» er et uttrykk som presist beskriver en av situasjonene der kvinner opplever stressinkontinens. En god latter forlenger livet, men kan altså forsure øyeblikket. Tilsvarende dersom hun hoster kraftig, nyser, eller kanskje bare løfter noe tungt. Hvis muskulaturen i bekkenbunnen er svekket, klarer den ikke å holde igjen urinen når trykket øker.

 

«Jeg må på do igjen!» kan være et tegn på begynnende urgeinkontinens, eller overaktiv blære, som det også kalles. Gjennomsnittlig later vi vannet fire til åtte ganger i løpet av dagen, men hvis man må på do mye oftere enn man pleier, eventuelt at man må opp flere ganger i løpet av natten, så kan det være tegn på urgeinkontinens.

 

For å gjøre bildet komplett – ja, det er også noe som heter anal inkontinens, altså lekkasje fra endetarmen. Anslagene for forekomsten av anal inkontinens er usikre, men anslås til å ligge mellom 1 og 10 % av den voksne befolkningen. Anal inkontinens er i seg selv ingen sykdom, men snarere et symptom på en underliggende lidelse.

 

Tap av kontroll = tap av verdighet = tap av verdi Vi ønsker alle å ha en viss kontroll over hvordan vi framstår overfor omgivelsene. Dersom man holder seg til tradisjonene, skal en mann være rett i ryggen og en kvinne være pent sminket, og alt ut over dette blir bare ren bonus. For et par generasjoner siden var det å ha kontroll over tilværelsen omtrent det samme som at klesvasken aldri hang ute på en søndag, og at barna hadde rene klær. Far gikk hjemmefra tidsnok til å rekke fram til kontoret til arbeidstidens begynnelse, og mor holdt seg hjemme og sørget for at gulvene ble vasket med en god, men billig såpe. I vår tid har imidlertid det hele blitt så uendelig mer komplisert – far skal på sammenkomst i gourmet-klubben, og mor og venninnene hennes skal trene i klatreveggen. Alt skal naturligvis dokumenteres på Facebook, og man gjør sitt ytterste for å framstå som et dannet, travelt og vellykket menneske. I all denne vellykketheten passer det dårlig å nevne sånn i forbifarten at man tilfeldigvis tisset på seg rett før den utrolige sunne og velsmakende lunsjen som for øvrig ble lagt ut på Instagram.

 

Det er ikke til å undres over at den som lider av ufrivillig urinlekkasje også opplever sosialt tap. Å ikke kunne kontrollere blærefunksjonen oppleves som et vesentlig tap av kontroll, og tap av kontroll = tap av verdighet = tap av verdi. Frykten for å «lekke» i en upassende situasjon gjør at den som er rammet lettere unnviker sosiale sammenkomster. Selve frykten for å miste kontroll kan virke like sterkt som det å faktisk miste kontroll. Inkontinens er et symptom som ikke synes, ikke høres, ikke kaller på medlidenhet og forståelse, men som bare … lukter. Den som er rammet trekker seg gjerne unna, og mange utvikler depresjon. Depresjonen forsterkes ved den sosiale tilbaketrekkingen, og man havner i en ond sirkel: tristhet fordi man er ensom, ensom fordi man engster seg for å «lekke». De som er i en partnerrelasjon til den som er rammet, kan oppleve at han eller hun trekker seg unna og helst unngår intime situasjoner. Den som ikke har partner vil kanskje vegre seg mot å inngå en intim relasjon, om ønsket er aldri så sterkt. Det utvikles en redsel for å fortelle, og en redsel for å ikke være verdt å bli elsket eller å kunne elske. Flere forskningsrapporter viser høy grad av samvariasjon mellom inkontinens og depresjon, men det er uklart om det er inkontinens som gir depresjon, eller om depresjon medfører større fare for å utvikle inkontinens.

 

Studier viser at det er en sammenheng mellom serotoninnivået i hjernen og inkontinens. Sammenhengene er ikke helt tydelige for oss enda, men signalstoffer som serotonin og noradrenalin har effekt på blærefunksjonen, og SRRI-medikamenter som vanligvis brukes i behandling av depresjon har vist effekt også på stressinkontinens.

 

For de som opplever inkontinens er det en mager trøst at forskningen etter hvert hjelper oss å forstå mer av årsakene. Det er mulig at vi en dag vil forstå nok til å redusere forekomsten av inkontinens, men inntil videre er det viktigste å poengtere at dette problemet er mer vanlig enn man skulle tro.

 

Av Rune Braaten, 2. semester, profesjonsstudiet i psykologi

 

Referanser

  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10511354
  • http://fysioterapeuten.no/Fag-og-vitenskap/Fagartikler/Urinlekkasje-og-bekkenbunnstrening-ogsaa-for-menn
  • http://www.tena.no/kvinne/informasjonssenter/typer-av-urinlekkasje/
  • http://www.farmatid.no/artikler/urininkontinens-ved-bruk-av-antipsykotika-antidepressiva
  • https://helsenorge.no/sykdom/nyrer-og-urinveier/stressinkontinens
  • http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/symptoms/urinary-incontinence/print.html
  • http://www.biomedcentral.com/1477-7525/1/35
  • https://sykepleien.no/forskning/2014/05/anal-inkontinens-kan-behandles

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