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Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 554

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 595

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 535

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 544

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 952

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 972

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 984

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 995

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::current() should either be compatible with Iterator::current(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 151

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::next() should either be compatible with Iterator::next(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 175

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::key() should either be compatible with Iterator::key(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 164

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::valid() should either be compatible with Iterator::valid(): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 186

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::rewind() should either be compatible with Iterator::rewind(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 138

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetExists($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 75

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetGet($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 89

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetSet($index, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 110

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetUnset($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 127

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::count() should either be compatible with Countable::count(): int, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 199

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$fields is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields.php on line 138

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Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 395

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 387

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 381

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 399

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 78

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 72

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 59

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 82

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Tweetstorm_Gather::$is_wpcom is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/class-wpcom-rest-api-v2-endpoint-tweetstorm-gather.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Gutenberg_Available_Extensions::$wpcom_is_site_specific_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/gutenberg-available-extensions.php on line 20

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Memberships::$wpcom_is_wpcom_only_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/memberships.php on line 23

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Memberships::$wpcom_is_site_specific_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/memberships.php on line 24

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Subscribers::$wpcom_is_wpcom_only_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/subscribers.php on line 15

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_Widget_Goodreads::$shelves is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/modules/widgets/goodreads.php on line 33

Deprecated: DateTime::__construct(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($datetime) of type string is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/script-loader.php on line 331

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_oembed::$width is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-oembed.php on line 31

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_oembed::$height is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-oembed.php on line 32

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_google_map::$default_values is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-google-map.php on line 33

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field__group::$have_rows is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-group.php on line 31

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$is_overloaded is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 21

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property MO::$_gettext_select_plural_form is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/translations.php on line 293

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Block_Type::$plan_check is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-type.php on line 284

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_header_model_class::$topbar_nbwrapper_container_class is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

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Online, offline – Speilvendt
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Online, offline


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Gaute Godager har en spennende og sammensatt bakgrunn. For noen er han nok mest kjent som en av grunnleggerne av det norske spillutviklingsselskapet Funcom, men Gaute har også blogget for Norsk psykologforening, og er for tiden ansatt som psykologspesialist ved sykehuset i Østfold. Der jobber han på en enhet som driver gruppebehandling, i hovedsak for personer med emosjonell ustabilitet, ADHD eller traumer.

Selv om Gaute forlot Funcom i 2008, har han ikke lagt spillutviklingen helt på hylla. I firmaet Attensi, som lager atferdstreningsprogrammer og apper, kombinerer Gaute bakgrunnen som spillutvikler med sin psykologkompetanse. For tiden jobber han med et behandlingsopplegg som tar i bruk virtuell virkelighet, for mennesker med sosial angst eller traumer.

 

Tekst: Hanne Gotaas Fredum & Amanda Olsen
Illustrasjons: Ivar Østby Simonsen

 

Skjermbilde 2017-03-31 kl. 10.55.56

 

Hanne: Man kan ta spillutvikleren ut av spillbransjen, men ikke spillbransjen ut av psykologen. Hvordan tror du at bakgrunnen din har påvirket deg som behandler?

 

Gaute: Det er en stor fordel å ha gjort noe annet når man jobber som behandler, uavhengig av bakgrunn. Dessuten er det en fordel å ha jobbet med noe kreativt, tror jeg. Kreativitet er noe man kan trene opp, ikke (bare) en medfødt evne. Å ha gjort så utrolig mange feil som jeg har gjort, har gjort meg modigere. Jeg kan trygt si at jeg ikke var noen verdensstjerne som spillutvikler; jeg prøvde, gjorde nye ting, spennende ting – men det falt ofte på magen i for store ambisjoner og for lite tid og penger. Å gjøre feil er nyttig, man får avstand fra indre krav om å lykkes – på samme måte som man blir eksponert for det meste man er redd for ved å utsette seg for det.
Jeg opplever at det i helsevesenet i dag er større krav til å unngå feil enn tidligere. At vi er i stand til å redde mange, gir oss en forventning om at alle kan og må reddes. Vissheten om at nederlag og snubling er uunngåelig gir meg frihet. Kreativitet er også det å åpne opp, å ikke tenke begrensninger; å la tankene flyte, følge impulser, og ikke skyte ned ideer som fødes halvferdige. Det er nyttig som behandler fordi man får håp og mot, og snur på flisa. Det kan selvsagt også hende det gjør meg vinglete, så det må jeg ha fokus på.
Helt konkret, når det gjelder å møte mennesker med ulike spillproblemer, gir bakgrunnen min meg også en fordel. Jeg har spilt utrolig mye selv; jeg kjenner språket og kulturen – jeg kan simpelthen med en ikke-tillært autensitet bekrefte at å spille er utrolig, utrolig kult – samtidig som det kan skape unngåelsesatferd. Mange bruker spilling for å unnvike andre problemer, på samme måte som noen bruker tv-serier eller hva som helst annet.

 

Amanda: Hva tenker du er de viktigste årsakene til at mennesker utvikler spillavhengighet, og hvordan kan man ivareta et sunt forhold til spill?

 

Gaute: Det er ingen egen diagnose for spillavhengighet; den som finnes i ICD-10 burde egentlig hete gamblingavhengighet, det er det den handler om. Likevel kan man utvikle ukontrollert, uregulert problemspilling, ofte forårsaket av ønsket om å unngå ubehag, særlig hos unge mennesker som blir mobbet, sliter på skolen, sliter sosialt eller er i konflikt med andre. Det vanligste jeg ser er kanskje ungdommer som spiller fordi de er utrolig gode i spilling, og ganske dårlige på skolen. Vennene er i spillverdenen; der har de forpliktelser, de er kanskje ledere i sine respektive spill, selve spillets Ronaldo – det er en enorm mengde mestring. Det er like mye positivitet og samhold i spillverdenen som den de går glipp av i den virkelige verden.
Mange ganger kan spillingen faktisk gjøre ubehaget verre, og noen ganger er spillingen roten til ubehaget. Problemet oppstår når man ikke klarer å leve livet slik man egentlig ønsker, med utdanning, jobb og et sosialt liv. Da snakker man om spillavhengighet, som egentlig er en form for atferdsavhengighet. Man blir helt besatt! Ofte forsvinner avhengigheten av seg selv når de underliggende utfordringene blir håndtert. Da klarer man å gjøre spill til hobby igjen.

 

Amanda: Hva med foreldrene, da? For mange representerer ulikheter i teknisk kompetanse en av de tydeligste generasjonsforskjellene mellom foreldre og barn i dag. Fører dette med seg vanskeligheter i behandling?

 

Gaute: Det hender, men som regel er hovedproblemet menneskelig konflikt. Foreldrene er redde for at barna skal lide skade, og for barna handler det ofte om at de ikke får bestemme hvor mye de skal gjøre noe de digger.

 

Hanne: Hvordan går man frem i slike situasjoner?

 

Gaute: Først må man identifisere hva det er som bidrar til å opprettholde spillingen som unngåelsesmekanisme. Deretter gjelder det å tydeliggjøre overfor foreldrene at spillingen ikke er roten til alt det vonde, og nyansere hva spillingen handler om. Ofte er ungdommen en begavet spiller og opplever mestring i spillverdenen. Når foreldrene forstår dette, kan de bli tolerante allierte i bedringsprosessen, som ikke napper ut nettverkskabler. Videre jobber man som behandler med å hjelpe ungdommen med å skape mening på andre plattformer, gjerne ved hjelp av et motivasjonelt intervju, der man hjelper hen med å reorientere seg mot andre verdier og evner – som å lykkes i utdanning og med venner. Her er samarbeid med skole, foreldre og andre viktig. Det vil være nødvendig å lage avtaler for å regulere spillingen på en god måte. Fokus på fremgang er en essensiell del av behandlingen.
Det er likt all annen systemisk jobbing. Dataspillingen blir på en måte «symptombæreren» i systemet.

 

Hanne: Hvis vi snur litt på flisa: Har du noen erfaring med bruk av spill i behandling?

 

Gaute: Jeg har erfaring med å bruke spillifisering i veiledning av miljøarbeidere, og jeg har erfaring med å utvikle spillifiserte behandlingsopplegg (spillifisering innebærer å bruke spillelementer i nye sammenhenger som ikke innebærer dataspill, red.anm.). Når jeg jobbet med barn og ungdom kunne jeg spille med dem, for å komme på lag, utvikle en allianse.

 

Amanda: Hva med lek, da?

 

Gaute: Jeg leker og tuller hele tiden! Jeg bruker mye humor, og særlig rollespill. Det er jo lek. Da fyrer «lekesentrene» i hjernen, og det er ikke så farlig å dumme seg ut. Vi ler sammen, jeg kan ofte overdrive litt for å gi det hele et mindre seriøst og gravalvorlig tilsnitt. Pasienten sier ofte at jeg spiller mye ondere og samtidig mye dummere enn originalen. Jeg tror det er i tråd med Viktor Frankls bruk av humor i terapi – det liker jeg (Viktor Frankl (1905-1997), psykiater og overlevende etter Holocaust, red.anm.). Tøys og tull er en fantastisk måte å forholde seg til ubehag på, og mer enn bare galgenhumor, som er helt livsnødvendig.

 

Amanda: Spilling handler jo også om å leke med roller; man kan være hvem man vil. Mange kvinner velger å skjule identiteten sin når de deltar i massively multiplayer online-spill, for å unngå trakassering. Hvorfor tror du at dette har blitt et så stort problem?

 

Folk er asosiale, trakasserer, mobber, kverker hverandre og oppfører seg generelt helt elendig – fordi de kan. At folk blir hemningsløse av å være anonyme, er ikke nytt.

 

Gaute: Flere grunner. For det første er spill 100% internasjonalt, og kjønnsholdninger varierer. Dette kan forme møtene – du kan like gjerne treffe på en spiller fra Saudi-Arabia som fra Innherad.
Videre er de fleste anonyme i nettspill, og det er ofte 50% menn som spiller kvinnelige karakterer i online spill. Dette vet folk, og det gjør at man tillater seg «stereotypiske» interaksjoner, tror jeg. Det viktigste er allikevel the intoxication of anonymity. Folk er asosiale, trakasserer, mobber, kverker hverandre og oppfører seg generelt helt elendig – fordi de kan. At folk blir hemningsløse av å være anonyme, er ikke nytt.
Hos mange menn kan det også være en bitterhet over å merke at man lever i et samfunn hvor menn blir avslørt som litt «dårlig fungerende kvinner». Menn gjør det dårligere på skolen, på universitetet, som omsorgsgivere, og etter hvert i prestisjeverv i samfunnet.

 

Amanda: Hvorfor det?

 

Gaute: Vi menn har noen biologiske markører som disponerer oss for å løpe i skogen, ta fysiske sjanser, skrike og hoie og kaste sten. Det er lite nyttig nå. Vi trenger samarbeid, stillesitting, detaljorientering og langsiktige planer. Dette er kanskje lettvint psykologi, og jeg har ikke evidens for det, men disse «mannsgreiene» er rett og slett overflødige genetiske vedheng – som halebeinet vårt. Det fører nok til en del frustrasjon, og vises kanskje også i antallet ADHD-diagnoser. Det er jo samfunnet som har endret seg, ikke gutta. Jeg tror det kan bli bitterheten på baksiden av medaljen for mange menn som faller utenfor. En hypotese er at denne bitterheten siver ut som ubehageligheter overfor kvinner.
Jeg har også lurt på om vi alle – både menn og kvinner – lar oss krenke i større grad i dag enn for noen år siden. Det kan nesten virke som om noen mennesker leter etter neste mulighet for å bli krenket. En venn av meg og jeg har døpt dette til Krenkariatet, et sted hvor krenkelsen dyrkes. Jeg er sikker på at trakassering er et stort problem. Samtidig har vi et valg når vi møter de små menneskene i verden. Å reagere kraftfullt og stort er ikke alltid den beste løsningen. Å leve krever pragmatisme helt dogmatisk.

 

Hanne: Gaute, du tar jo med deg spillverdenen inn i terapirommet, men spillverdenen tvinger seg også inn døra til den virkelige verden for øvrig. Tror du spillverdenen kommer til å fortsette å snakke til oss i fremtiden?

 

Gaute: Noe som er interessant er jo at mange ting som finnes i den virkelige verden faktisk kommer fra spillverdenen.
Hanne: Som hva da?
Gaute: LOL for eksempel, som alle sa for noen år siden, drev jo jeg og skrev i 1989. Normer og språk smitter over fra ulike plattformer. LOL ble et uttrykk alle trengte når man skulle kommunisere følelser med tekst kjapt. Husk at dette var før emoticons ble trendy.

 

Amanda: Ja, se det – vipps! så var visst også vi blitt ofre for spillkulturen.


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