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Selvhjelpsismen – Speilvendt
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Selvhjelpsismen


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Psykologer, coacher og mentale trenere er blitt de nye prestene, ifølge Ole Jacob Madsen. Betyr det at selvhjelpsbøker er den nye Bibelen?

 

Verden rundt oss synes full av bøker skrevet av coacher som vil fjerne vår blokkering av indre ressurser. Forlokkende oppskrifter tilbyr enkle veier mot økt suksess. Personlige trenere vil utvide våre horisonter og våre brystmuskler. I dette infernoet av alle tilgjengelige former for selvhjelpslitteratur lyder imidlertid den kritiske røsten fra psykolog, filosof og forfatter Ole Jacob Madsen.

Hva tror du er årsaken til at det økte behovet for selvhjelpslitteratur har oppstått?

– Det er et stort spørsmål du stiller. I min nye bok Det er innover vi må gå bruker jeg 220 sider på svaret og føler likevel ikke at jeg har kommet til bunns. Ordlyden din om at dette er et behov som har oppstått, vil nok likevel en del protestere mot. De vil hevde at mennesket til alle tider har vært opptatt av å utvikle seg selv kroppslig og mentalt, og at det dermed ikke er noe nytt behov vi står overfor.

Men selve selvhjelpslitteraturen er ny?

– Mange vil kanskje si at selvhjelpsbøkene vi kjøper i dag har erstattet rollen kristendommen og andre religioner hadde tidligere. De ga svar på spørsmål som «Hvem er jeg?», «Hvor skal vi?» og «Hva er det rette å gjøre?». Psykologer, coacher og mentale trenere er blitt de nye prestene.

Dette er altså ikke noe nytt fenomen, det har bare tatt en annen form?

– En alternativ innfallsvinkel, som jeg selv mener har mye for seg, er å vedgå at det faktisk er noe nytt som har skjedd i samtiden. Vi opplever framveksten av en fundamental form for usikkerhet, tett forbundet med avviklingen av tradisjoner og økt individualisering. Dette har ført til at mer eller mindre alle mennesker tvinges til å finne svar på de spørsmålene jeg nettopp nevnte, men i seg selv, og for seg selv. Dermed oppstår det et stort marked for alskens eksperter som mener å ha svaret på hvordan du best forvalter deg selv. Det å være et menneske i dag er blitt et eget prosjekt, mens man tidligere i større grad kunne ta sin identitet for gitt.

Vi opplever framveksten av en fundamental form for usikkerhet, tett forbundet med avviklingen av tradisjoner og økt individualisering.

For mange er det lett å falle for disse enkle løsningene. Sannsynligvis har de fleste en tante som synger seg til mindfulness, eller en fetter som for tiden går tungpustet gjennom Bertrand Larssens helvetesuke. Burde selvhjelpslitteraturen være underlagt strengere kontroll?

– Problemet er vel at det mangler en felles, akseptert standard for å avgjøre hvorvidt noe virker, så det er vanskelig å se for seg i praksis. Samtidig tenker jeg jo at man har sviktet med alminnelig folkeopplysning når man eksempelvis finner en seksjon viet NLP-litteratur i seriøse bokhandlere som Norli, 30 år etter at nevrolingvistisk programmering viste seg å være en bløff. Om ikke kontroll er mulig, burde man i alle fall utsette slike metoder for en allment tilgjengelig kritisk gjennomgang mye oftere.

Er selvhjelpskulturen et tegn på sunnhet eller sykdom?

– Dette strides de lærde om, og jeg tenker den rommer begge disse polaritetene.

Hva kan være konsekvensen av ideen om at alle svar først og fremst er å finne i oss selv?

– Når vi fortelles at alle svarene ligger i oss selv, så er det en ubønnhørlig konsekvens at årsaken til nederlaget også er å finne der. Ergo går mange mennesker rundt med en skam de ikke blir av med. Før klandret man omgivelsene, ens far, ens mor, ens hersker, skjebnen eller guder. Nå kan man ikke skylde på andre enn seg selv.

Tror du som en konsekvens av selvfokuset at vi er i ferd med å erstatte samarbeidskultur og troen på kollektive prosjekter med vår egen selvdyrkelse og narsissisme?

– Jeg liker ikke å ta i bruk begrep som «selvdyrkelse» og «narsissisme» fordi det lett gir gale assosiasjoner til at problemet er dårlig moral. Jeg er likevel redd for at den moderne, selvforsynte individualismen, som er blitt en referanseramme for det moderne liv, gjør at vi som samfunn er lite egnet til å respondere raskt på kollektive farer. Som for eksempel de menneskeskapte klimaendringene. Ansvarsfølelsen for noe utover oss selv er ikke lenger en ressurs man kan ta for gitt.

Kan psykologien endre samfunnet?

– Jeg må innrømme at jeg har litt aversjon mot slike vyer. Samtidig, selv om psykologi neppe kan redde menneskeheten alene, kan den i hvert fall gi et bidrag. I den senere tid har jeg blitt oppmerksom på hvordan man i for eksempel klimasaken ofte trenger psykologisk kunnskap for å hjelpe «de grønne» naturviterne med å få gjennom budskapet sitt, eller bruke psykologisk viten for å legge til rette for atferdsendringer.

I selvhjelpslitteraturen er det særlig mye snakk om streben etter å være «den beste utgaven av seg selv». Hvor tror du dette fenomenet kommer fra?

– Jeg sporer det tilbake til Oprah Winfrey. Hun er en utpreget metodologisk individualist, jamfør det hun har sagt om showet sitt: «Det vi forsøker å forandre på denne timen er det jeg mener er roten til alle problemer i verden – mangelen på selvfølelse». Det er en kort vei fra dette resonnementet til å tenke at de som er rammet av fattigdom eller narkomani, bare trenger å styrke selvfølelsen.

Likevel: Hvis alle etterstreber «den beste utgaven av seg selv», vil ikke også samfunnet tjene på nettopp dette?

– Umiddelbart høres din påstand riktig ut. Hvis det hadde vært så enkelt som at du som ene-hersker kunne kommandere befolkningen din til «vær den dårligste utgaven av deg selv», eller «vær den beste utgaven av deg selv», så ville jeg jo foretrekke sistnevnte budskap. Og hvis du og dine medstudenter vil gå rundt og tenke med dere selv at «jeg er den beste utgaven av meg selv», så gjerne for meg. Jeg har ikke noen ambisjon om å være noen nådeløs sannhetssøker à la Gregers Werle her.

Men du liker det ikke?

– Poenget er at denne optimaliseringen av selvet er en del av det sosiologer kaller for en «makeoverkultur», hvor fysisk og psykisk forbedring blir et uttalt mål. At man velger å ta i bruk midler som selvhjelpslitteratur og kosmetisk kirurgi, blir dermed bare en naturlig forlengelse av denne type holdninger. Om ikke annet må vi i hvert fall ta bevisst stilling til hvorvidt et så eksplisitt selvforbedringsimperativ virkelig er det beste for folk flest. Det kan jo for eksempel bli ganske slitsomt å være menneske da.

 

Ole Jacob Madsen

  • Utdannet psykolog og ansatt som førsteamanuensis i kultur- og samfunnspsykologi ved Universitetet i Oslo
  • Er forfatter og filosof, med interesser innen kultur, politikk og samfunnsutvikling
  • En gjennomgående tanke i Madsens arbeid er hvordan psykologien påvirker og manifesterer seg i vår vestlige samtid
  • Aktuell med boken Det er innover vi må gå som tar for seg en kritisk og oversiktlig gjennomgang av idealene selvhjelpskulturen representerer

 

Tekst Adriane Lilleskare Lunde, profesjonsstudiet i psykologi, 3. semester

Foto Christopher Wirsching

Illustrasjon Kristin Bakkerud


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