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Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 554

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 595

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 535

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 544

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 952

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 972

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 984

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 995

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::current() should either be compatible with Iterator::current(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 151

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::next() should either be compatible with Iterator::next(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 175

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::key() should either be compatible with Iterator::key(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 164

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::valid() should either be compatible with Iterator::valid(): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 186

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::rewind() should either be compatible with Iterator::rewind(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 138

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetExists($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 75

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetGet($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 89

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetSet($index, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 110

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetUnset($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 127

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::count() should either be compatible with Countable::count(): int, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 199

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$fields is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields.php on line 138

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$validation is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/validation.php on line 215

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Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 395

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 387

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 381

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 399

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 78

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 72

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 59

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 82

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Tweetstorm_Gather::$is_wpcom is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/class-wpcom-rest-api-v2-endpoint-tweetstorm-gather.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Gutenberg_Available_Extensions::$wpcom_is_site_specific_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/gutenberg-available-extensions.php on line 20

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Memberships::$wpcom_is_wpcom_only_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/memberships.php on line 23

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Memberships::$wpcom_is_site_specific_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/memberships.php on line 24

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Subscribers::$wpcom_is_wpcom_only_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/subscribers.php on line 15

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_resources_scripts::$_resouces_version is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/class-fire-resources_scripts.php on line 20

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_resources_styles::$_resouces_version is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/class-fire-resources_styles.php on line 35

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_google_map::$default_values is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-google-map.php on line 33

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Block_Type::$plan_check is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-type.php on line 284

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_header_model_class::$topbar_nbwrapper_container_class is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_logo_model_class::$src is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_related_posts_model_class::$element_width is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

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Stygt – Udefinert tåke, ikke eksisterende, eller to streker under svaret? – Speilvendt
Deprecated: Implicit conversion from float 35.400000000000006 to int loses precision in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/functions-ccat.php on line 1638

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Stygt – Udefinert tåke, ikke eksisterende, eller to streker under svaret?


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Tekst/illustrasjon: Lina Woldsdal Glorvigen

«Stygt» er et ord som vekker assosiasjoner, følelser og forventninger. Både konkret og abstrakt. Men hva skal egentlig til for at noe oppleves stygt? Speilvendt ville se på psykologiske fenomener knyttet til begrepet og tok en prat med psykologene Saher Sourouri og Usman M. Chaudhry for å bli litt klokere.

Saher Sourouri driver privat praksis i Oslo, og har god peiling på psykologien bak arkitektur. Han er en av frontfigurene i Arkitekturopprøret og er sterkt engasjert i debatten om vakre bygninger og klassisk arkitektur.
– Studier viser at mennesker ser etter former fra naturen når de avgjør om en bygning er fin eller stygg, forteller han.
– Forklaringen er at mennesket er ekspert på å lese ansikter. Symmetri er behagelig å se på fordi det er forbundet med god helse og fruktbarhet, og motsatt ved asymmetri, fortsetter han. Attraktive fjes kan blant annet forbindes med pålitelighet, legger Chaudhry til. Chaudry jobber som psykolog i Oslo kommune og sitter i styret for Forening for interkulturell psykologi.

Det er velkjent at fruktbarhet er tiltrekkende, rent evolusjonsmessig. Men at dette kan overføres til arkitektur, var overraskende. Sourouri gir et eksempel:
– Firkantede bygg med skarpe kanter kan oppleves stygt, nettopp fordi det ikke er vanlig forekomst i naturen. Hjernen vår er dermed ikke like godt trent til å prosessere den typen impulser, og skarpe kanter oppleves derfor ikke like behagelig som former det er mye av i naturen, beskriver han.
– Forskning har vist at asymmetrisk arkitektur, som er rotete og skjev, vanligvis oppleves stygt for et utrent øye. Kurver, sterke farger og utsmykninger reflekterer naturen, og oppleves dermed vakkert.
– Stygt er jo et komplekst psykologisk fenomen – bare det å ha et helt magasinnummer dedikert til «stygt» illustrerer dette poenget, kommenterer Chaudhry.
– Studier viser at barn har evnen til å vurdere et ansikt som attraktivt selv før de blir eksponert for kulturelle normer og samfunnsidealer, fortsetter han.

En studie med øyesporingsteknologi målte tiden forsøkspersoner så på ulike bygninger og hvor på bygningene de festet blikket lengst. Man fant at mennesker «leser» arkitektur som de «leser» ansikt.
– Forsøkspersonene så fort etter vinduer som så ut som øyne, dører som lignet en munn og lignende. Sannsynligvis fordi det trigger behagelige følelser, sier Sourouri.
Da forsøkspersonene ble vist et glassbygg, hadde de en tendens til å feste blikket på siden av bygget. Som om de ville se vekk og på noe annet. Dette kan forklares med at det i et glassbygg kan være vanskelig å gjenkjenne former fra et ansikt, og det kan derfor oppleves ubehagelig, fortsetter psykologen.

Ved spørsmål om hva Sourouri tenker om det nye Munch-museet i Bjørvika, sier han lattermildt: – Munch-bygget vant kåringen over styggeste nybygg ved en spørreundersøkelse under arkitekturopprøret. Det kan sies at det krysser av på flere punkter som kunne fått forsøkspersonene i studien til å se en annen vei. Når det er sagt, er det også mange som er begeistret over arkitekturen til det nye museet.

Men hva gjør stygge ting egentlig med oss? Sourouri forklarer at stress er en god indikator på om noe oppleves stygt eller ei:
– Det kan enten måles ved fysiologiske tester som puls, svettemåling eller stresshormoner i spyttprøver – eller det kan måles ved selvrapportering.

«Stygt» kan altså være både universelt og rotfestet i evolusjonspsykologien, og andre ganger kan det være individuelt og påvirket av noe annet.
– Studier har vist at arkitekter ofte bommer på å predikere hva folk synes er fint. Det er trolig fordi arkitekter lærer å abstrahere arkitektur, legge vekk følelser og bli mer teknisk rettet i vurdering av fint eller stygt. De blir mer analytiske og mindre intuitive. Så når folk flest baserer vurderinger på følelser, er det klart at det blir et skille, forteller Sourouri.

Videre beskriver han hvordan skjønnhets- og stygghetsidealer endres over tid, oftest innenfor et spekter. Det er ikke bare biologi som avgjør skjønnhet, men også kultur, subjektivitet og sosiale faktorer.
– En forunderlig observasjon er utviklingen av kvinners øyenbryn fra syltynne blyantstreker på 90-tallet til store «bushy brows» i dag, kommenterer Chaudhry.
– Et Bolia-bord med marmorplate og bord av eik kan være midt i blinken for en rik skipsreder på Frogner, mens hos kronprinsen av Saudi-Arabia hadde det trolig ikke stått i stil til messingmøblene, fortsetter Chaudhry spøkefullt.

Spisse glassbygg eller blyantstreker til øyenbryn, det er kanskje ikke så lett å gi en fasit på hva som er stygt og ikke. Noe er vi programmert til å frastå, andre ting kan vi lære oss å like, og resten er det kanskje opp til samtiden å bestemme. Eller? Speilvendt vil gjerne høre hva du tenker om «stygt». Du finner oss her:

Lina Woldsdal Glorvigen går 5. semester på profesjonsstudiet i
psykologi.


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