Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property wpdb::$categories is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 668

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property wpdb::$post2cat is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 668

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property wpdb::$link2cat is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 668

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 554

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 595

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 535

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 544

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 952

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 972

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 984

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 995

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::current() should either be compatible with Iterator::current(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 151

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::next() should either be compatible with Iterator::next(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 175

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::key() should either be compatible with Iterator::key(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 164

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::valid() should either be compatible with Iterator::valid(): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 186

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::rewind() should either be compatible with Iterator::rewind(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 138

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetExists($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 75

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetGet($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 89

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetSet($index, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 110

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetUnset($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 127

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::count() should either be compatible with Countable::count(): int, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 199

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$fields is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields.php on line 138

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_loop::$loops is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/loop.php on line 28

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$loop is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/loop.php on line 269

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$revisions is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/revisions.php on line 387

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_validation::$errors is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/validation.php on line 28

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$validation is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/validation.php on line 215

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_customizer::$preview_values is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/forms/form-customizer.php on line 28

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_customizer::$preview_fields is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/forms/form-customizer.php on line 29

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_customizer::$preview_errors is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/forms/form-customizer.php on line 30

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$form_front is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/forms/form-front.php on line 600

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_widget::$preview_values is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/forms/form-widget.php on line 34

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_widget::$preview_reference is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/forms/form-widget.php on line 35

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_widget::$preview_errors is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/forms/form-widget.php on line 36

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 395

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 387

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 381

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_FormTag::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/form-tag.php on line 399

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 78

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 72

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 59

Deprecated: Return type of WPCF7_Validation::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/validation.php on line 82

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Shortcodes_Ultimate::$about_menu is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/shortcodes-ultimate/includes/class-shortcodes-ultimate.php on line 207

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Shortcodes_Ultimate::$unsafe_features_notice is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/shortcodes-ultimate/includes/class-shortcodes-ultimate.php on line 229

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Shortcodes_Ultimate::$widget is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/shortcodes-ultimate/includes/class-shortcodes-ultimate.php on line 256

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Automattic\Jetpack\Connection\Manager::$error_handler is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/vendor/automattic/jetpack-connection/src/class-manager.php on line 91

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Instagram_Gallery::$is_wpcom is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/class-wpcom-rest-api-v2-endpoint-instagram-gallery.php on line 23

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Mailchimp::$wpcom_is_wpcom_only_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/class-wpcom-rest-api-v2-endpoint-mailchimp.php on line 17

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Tweetstorm_Gather::$wpcom_is_wpcom_only_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/class-wpcom-rest-api-v2-endpoint-tweetstorm-gather.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Tweetstorm_Gather::$is_wpcom is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/class-wpcom-rest-api-v2-endpoint-tweetstorm-gather.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Gutenberg_Available_Extensions::$wpcom_is_site_specific_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/gutenberg-available-extensions.php on line 20

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Memberships::$wpcom_is_wpcom_only_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/memberships.php on line 23

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Memberships::$wpcom_is_site_specific_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/memberships.php on line 24

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_REST_API_V2_Endpoint_Subscribers::$wpcom_is_wpcom_only_endpoint is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/_inc/lib/core-api/wpcom-endpoints/subscribers.php on line 15

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$is_overloaded is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_pos is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_f is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 153

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property MO::$_gettext_select_plural_form is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/translations.php on line 293

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Automattic\Jetpack\Sync\Queue::$random_int is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/vendor/automattic/jetpack-sync/src/class-queue.php on line 38

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Publicize_UI::$in_jetpack is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/modules/publicize.php on line 53

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$is_overloaded is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_pos is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_f is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 153

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property MO::$_gettext_select_plural_form is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/translations.php on line 293

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$is_overloaded is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_pos is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_f is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 153

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property MO::$_gettext_select_plural_form is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/translations.php on line 293

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_resources_scripts::$_resouces_version is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/class-fire-resources_scripts.php on line 20

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$is_overloaded is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_pos is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_f is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 153

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property MO::$_gettext_select_plural_form is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/translations.php on line 293

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_resources_styles::$_resouces_version is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/class-fire-resources_styles.php on line 35

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WPCOM_Widget_Goodreads::$shelves is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/modules/widgets/goodreads.php on line 33

Deprecated: DateTime::__construct(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($datetime) of type string is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/script-loader.php on line 331

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$is_overloaded is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_pos is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_f is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 153

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_oembed::$width is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-oembed.php on line 31

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_oembed::$height is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-oembed.php on line 32

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_google_map::$default_values is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-google-map.php on line 33

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field__group::$have_rows is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields/includes/fields/class-acf-field-group.php on line 31

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Cookie_Jar::offsetExists($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/Requests/Cookie/Jar.php on line 63

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Cookie_Jar::offsetGet($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/Requests/Cookie/Jar.php on line 73

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Cookie_Jar::offsetSet($key, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/Requests/Cookie/Jar.php on line 89

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Cookie_Jar::offsetUnset($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/Requests/Cookie/Jar.php on line 102

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Cookie_Jar::getIterator() should either be compatible with IteratorAggregate::getIterator(): Traversable, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/Requests/Cookie/Jar.php on line 111

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Utility_CaseInsensitiveDictionary::offsetExists($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/Requests/Utility/CaseInsensitiveDictionary.php on line 40

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Utility_CaseInsensitiveDictionary::offsetGet($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/Requests/Utility/CaseInsensitiveDictionary.php on line 51

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Utility_CaseInsensitiveDictionary::offsetSet($key, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/Requests/Utility/CaseInsensitiveDictionary.php on line 68

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Utility_CaseInsensitiveDictionary::offsetUnset($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/Requests/Utility/CaseInsensitiveDictionary.php on line 82

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Utility_CaseInsensitiveDictionary::getIterator() should either be compatible with IteratorAggregate::getIterator(): Traversable, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/Requests/Utility/CaseInsensitiveDictionary.php on line 91

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$is_overloaded is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_pos is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property POMO_FileReader::$_f is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/streams.php on line 153

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property MO::$_gettext_select_plural_form is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/pomo/translations.php on line 293

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Block_Type::$plan_check is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-block-type.php on line 284

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Jetpack_Shortcode_Unavailable::$shortcodes is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/plugins/jetpack/modules/shortcodes/unavailable.php on line 19

Deprecated: trim(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp.php on line 173

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Term::$object_id is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-includes/class-wp-term.php on line 198

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_header_model_class::$mobile_nbwrapper_class is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_header_model_class::$primary_nbwrapper_container_class is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_header_model_class::$topbar_nbwrapper_container_class is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_logo_model_class::$src is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_related_posts_model_class::$excerpt_length is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_related_posts_model_class::$media_cols is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_related_posts_model_class::$content_cols is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_related_posts_model_class::$element_width is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property CZR_Model::$inner_container_class is deprecated in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/fmk-ccat.php on line 283
Taklingsevner – Speilvendt
Deprecated: Implicit conversion from float 35.400000000000006 to int loses precision in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/functions-ccat.php on line 1638

Deprecated: Implicit conversion from float 35.400000000000006 to int loses precision in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/functions-ccat.php on line 1639

Deprecated: Implicit conversion from float 35.400000000000006 to int loses precision in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/functions-ccat.php on line 1640

Deprecated: Implicit conversion from float 104.25000000000003 to int loses precision in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/functions-ccat.php on line 1638

Deprecated: Implicit conversion from float 104.25000000000003 to int loses precision in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/functions-ccat.php on line 1639

Deprecated: Implicit conversion from float 104.25000000000003 to int loses precision in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/functions-ccat.php on line 1640

Deprecated: Implicit conversion from float 117.00000000000003 to int loses precision in /home/1/s/speilvendt/www/wp-content/themes/customizr/core/functions-ccat.php on line 1638

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Taklingsevner


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Tekst: Hans Altmann
Illustrasjon: Emilie Sandell

Det har nylig blitt brakt til min oppmerksomhet at det ikke finnes et godt norsk ord/begrep for det engelske «Coping Mechanism». Jeg har derfor besluttet, gjennom detaljerte diskurser med fagkyndige, å gi fullstendig beng i deres faglige begrunnelser og grublerier og heller finne på min egen oversettelse, nemlig “Taklingsevner”™. Klager bes henvendt til språkrådet og godtgjørelser for bruk av ordet kan sendes til meg per post. 

Det er urovekkende hvor lite oppmerksomhet det blir gitt taklingsevner, tatt i betraktning hvor stor del av livet vårt de utgjør. Hver gang det grå, intetsigende spørsmålet «hva betyr det å være voksen?» smyger seg inn i en samtale på filtkledde føtter, og med voldsom kraft kantrer og overtar den, oppmuntrer til vold og oppstandelse, for så å forsvinne igjen like lydløst som det kom, uten at man kommer i nærheten av noen kjerne, konsensus, enighet eller forståelse av spørsmålet. Det legger igjen intetsigende klumper av betegnelser og karakteristika som «ansvarlighet», «uavhengighet», og «fornuft» på bordet mellom dere der dere sitter, klumper som alle ønsker å ha på en armlengdes avstand. Klumper som egentlig ikke betyr noe, men som i seg selv ber på sine knær etter nye spørsmål: «Hva er uavhengighet?» «Hva er fornuft?» 

Svaret på dette misfosteret av et spørsmål blir alltid antatt å ligge internt hos den voksne – altså at det er noe innbyrdes det voksne som gjør det til noe voksent. Dette fører, som mange av oss har erfart, aldri noen vei. Jeg foreslår at vi heller retter blikket mot det eksterne – mot eventuelle fellestrekk i de omstendigheter og hendelser som kjennetegner et voksent liv. På de faktorer som den voksne tilværelse preges av. Etter en kort og lat undersøkelse, har jeg selv konkludert med at fellesnevneren for hva som kjennetegner en voksen tilværelse, er at livet suger. Kort og godt. 

For å underbygge dette åtsel av en påstand har jeg tenkt å vise til to tekster som begge  handler om hvordan vi innretter oss etter det faktum at livet suge. I tillegg vil jeg vise til en morsom youtube video om en gorilla som på en passiv-aggressiv måte prøver å jage vekk sitt eget speilbilde. Bøkene er forøvrig «On drinking» av Charles Bukowski, og «Child of God» av Cormac McCarthy. 

Alkohol, kjappe svinger og baluba. 
Charles Bukowski er viden kjent som tapernes poet, en rennesteins-sjel og høyverdig slabbedask. I tillegg drakk han som en alke. Han deler fellestrekk med andre drankere, her spesielt nevnt forfatter-drankere som Norman Mailer, Hunter S. Thompson og Hemingway, i den grad at han sikter til at det er en kausal sammenheng mellom taklingsevnen (altså drekking) og en ekstern faktor. Altså drikker man fordi man kognitivt har resonnert seg frem til at fordelene ved å drikke er større enn ulempene det medfører. Han sier følgende i «An interview with Charles Bukowski» som en respons på et spørsmål om sitt forhold til kvinner og alkohol: «I don’t think I could’ve endured any of the shitty jobs i had in so many cities in this country without knowing I could come back to my room and drink it off and smooth it out, let the walls slant in, the face of the subnormal foreman vanish, always knowing that they were buying my time, my body, me, for a few pennies while they prospered.» (Abel Debritto, 2019, s. 238). Han fortsetter: «Then too, I could’ve never lived with some of those women unless they were transferred by drink into half-dreams, which wavered before me» (Abel Debritto, s. 238). Men han har selvinnsikt nok til å peke på en viktig detalj i følgende utdrag fra «Tough Love» om alkohol: «I don’t think drink destroy writers. I think they are destroyed by self-satisfaction, the goddamned ego.»(Abel Debritto, s. 180). 

Her sier han altså  at drankere (les: alle som drikker) drikker fordi de vil. Det foreligger en tydelig intensjon, et oppriktig ønske om det. Tilsynelatende en ubetydelig distinksjon. Det er jo en vanlig oppfatning at man drikker fordi jobben er kjip, dama/typen slo opp, eller fordi man kjeder seg. Handlingsrekka blir da slik: Ekstern faktor -> taklingsevne -> ekstern faktor forsert. Men ved å fremheve at man drikker fordi man vil, så utvides denne rekka til følgende: Ekstern faktor -> ubehag -> taklingsevne -> ekstern faktor forsert. Ved å peke på at drikkinga stammer fra et begjær, så blir det tydeligere at man ikke drikker av rasjonell overbevisning, men av et emosjonelt drevet behov. Drikkinga er ikke lenger en kognitiv respons på en ekstern faktor, eller en rasjonelt drevet handling hvor man har veid fordeler og ulemper opp mot hverandre, men en emosjonell respons drevet av et eneste ønske om at ubehaget som den eksterne faktoren medfører skal kveles for enhver pris. Hvorfor er dette en viktig distinksjon? 

For det første blir drikking på denne måten redusert til hva det faktisk er: en taklingsevne. Altså en primal respons på et ubehag eller smerte som man lik et dyr søker å unngå for enhver pris, i motsetning til slik det ofte portretteres i media, der den ensomme helten må drikke for å holde demonene borte for å kunne gjøre jobben sin (se f.eks. ethvert Noir drama noensinne utgitt) eller av valgt livsfilosofi (eks: Cole Rust fra True Detective, eller Rick fra Rick&Morty). For det andre blir det mulig å sidestille denne taklingsevnen med en annen taklingsevne, nemlig passiv-aggressivitet. 

Aper, speil og avmakt
En fuktig kveld befant jeg meg på den mørke siden av Youtube. Her  slumpet jeg inn på en serie videoer hvor man har filmet ville dyr i møtet med et speil i en jungel. En sølvrygg støter på nevnte speil, og i frykt for at den nyankomne gjesten skal stjele hans hardt ervervede harem av damer, forsøker han å skremme bort slasken ved å dundre hardt i bakken med håndflatene og styrte mot speilet for så å skjene unna (Xavier Hubert-Brierre, 2015, 0:00-03:15). Han  søker aldri blikkontakt med speilbildet. Hvorfor nevner jeg dette? 

Gorillaens to motstridende ønsker, nemlig å virke truende ved å være fysisk voldsom, og å hindre en fysisk konfrontasjon ved å unngå blikkontakt, minner veldig om passiv-aggressiv holdning hos oss mennesker. Vi studenter i hvert fall må ofte samhandle og arbeide med andre mennesker, og mange av oss tyr fra tid til annen (noen av oss ofte) til passiv-aggressivitet for å motvirke ubehaget fra sosiale utfordringer vi møter i f.eks. gruppearbeid, prosjekter og lignende. En måte å forstå passiv-aggressivitet på er som en respons på avmakt. Et eller annet har skjedd (en ekstern faktor) med deg, ofte påført av en autoritet i fysisk, sosial eller lignende forstand, som du ikke klarer å kontrollere/stoppe grunnet manglende evner/ressurser/fysikk. Dette resulterer i en reaksjon i form av avmakt som vekker vonde følelser (et ubehag) hos den enkelte. For å redusere ubehaget ved tap av autonomi, så er den nødvendige handlingen en aggressiv respons. Men fordi vi er sosiale dyr, og ikke ønsker å bryte opp eller ødelegge de sosiale relasjonene innad i gruppen og risikere utstøtelse, er alternativet en kombinasjon av aksept av autonomi-tapet, samt en indirekte uttrykk av misnøye (taklingsevne). Slik kan situasjonen, så lenge passiv-aggressiviteten ikke blir overdreven, løses på en funksjonell måte (ekstern faktor forsert). Denne handlingsrekken kan overføres til mange aspekter ved dagliglivet til en voksen person, som neglebiting, overdreven bruk av smarttelefon/PC/internett, kaffedrikking, økonomisk overforbruk, tobakksmisbruk (*host* snus *host*), gambling til mer bisarre taklingsevner som nekrofili. 

Nekrofili i appalachene, Sosial frykt og Jeffrey Dahmer. 
Før jeg gir meg vil jeg gjerne si noe om nekrofili som taklingsevne slik den fremstår i Cormac McCarthys beskrivelse av en sosialt utstøtt manns kontinuerlige fordervelse i boken «“Child of God»”. 

I «Child of god» transformeres Lester Ballard fra å være en bygde-særing til å gå fullstendig Ed Gein på beboerne i et navneløst bygdesamfunn i appalachene øst i Tennessee. Her begår han mord, likskjending, samt kreativt gjenbruk av menneskeskalper og hud. Gjennom vitnesbeskrivelser, polysyndethon-fylte skildringer av hans interaksjon med befolkningen og kreativ bruk av det engelske vokabular – som skildrer en stadig døende natur som går fra vår til vinter – gir McCarthy oss et perspektiv på nekrofili som taklingsevne, hvor Lesters dypere pervertering går fra noe menneskelig til sjelelig mørke. I følgende artikkel i «Psychology Today» står det: «The need for an unrejecting partner is universal for most humans who desire an intimate relationship with another living human, as is the need to feel accepted. And so with necrophilia, it would be worth assessing all of the qualities people look for in a living person (using dating websites, and the ample pop psychology outlets), and seeing if those needs could be met with a deceased partner» (Pemment, 2018). Lester blir jagd fra sin egen eiendom etter et fengselsopphold og skys av befolkningen som ikke tar fem øre for å minne han på at hans eksistens er uønsket. Alle har et behov for menneskelig kontakt og intimitet, men hvordan skal dette forenes med behovet for å holde mennesker på avstand, siden de bare forårsaker et ubehag? 

Begjæret etter intimitet og begjæret etter sikkerhet vitner om et utilfredsstilt behov hvis løsning her ligger i å ha sex med et menneske som må være dødt, slik at det ikke kan skade han tilbake. Her blir Lester nekrofili en taklingsevne for å forsere et ubehag forårsaket av en ekstern faktor. Artikkelen fortsetter: «A dead partner is not judgmental, there is no fear of needing to produce a reciprocal orgasm during sex, they cannot emotionally hurt anyone, they can be trusted, they do not answer back, there is no concern about offspring, and they can meet what is only a temporary need for sexual intimacy. The necrophiliac also has the luxury of creating, imagining, or fantasizing the corpse to be anything they want it to be». I boka kommer dette til syne gjennom Ballards påkledning og avkledning av likene, samt hans behov for å se på dem gjennom et vindu, og slik nøre opp under fantasien om at de faktisk er mennesker. Sex-dokker ville ikke kunne fylt den samme funksjonen. 

På godt og vondt er taklingsevner en substansiell del av det å være voksen. Å finne strategier og mekanismer som kan hjelpe oss med å takle stresset som det å være i live medfører; å være et uavhengig individ er kanskje et av de attributene man kan kalle for universelle for alle voksne (i alle fall i vestlig kultur). Noen taklingsevner er definitivt mer destruktive enn andre, og jeg har ikke forsøkt å sidestille alle taklingsevner med hverandre som om de er helt like eller like gode. Ei heller vil jeg påstå  at de perspektivene jeg har fremmet her er eneste måten å forstå nekrofili, alkoholmisbruk eller passiv-aggressivitet på. Jeg har snarere forsøkt å finne et forslag til en universell karakteristika for det man kan kalle for «the adult condition» for å videre kunne danne et fundament for å diskutere hva det vil si å være en voksen person, uten å måtte ty til dogmatiske og intetsigende dyder som «ansvarlighet» eller «uavhengighet» som ikke fører noen steder. Men det får være en tekst til en annen gang.       

Hans Altmann går 4. semester på Bibliotek- og informasjonvitenskapsstudiet ved OsloMet

Litteraturliste: 
Abel Debritto (Red.). 2019. Charles Bukowski on drinking. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. 

Cormac McCarthy. (1973). Child of God (2010 Picador edition). London: Picador.  

Jack Pemment. (2019, 30. Januar). The building blocks of necrophilia. Psychology Today. Hentet fra https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/blame-the-amygdala/201901/the-building-blocks-necrophilia

Xavier Hubert-Brierre. [Xavier HUBERT-BRIERRE]. (4. Januar 2015). This Silverback thinks this intruder in the mirror (his own reflection) comes to steal his wives [Videoklipp]. Hentet fra: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tz0avWZoqjg&t=86s


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