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The New Normal – Speilvendt
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The New Normal


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Skrevet av Sidrah Shaheen

Hva som identifiseres som «unntak» er under konstant utvikling og endring. Vår historie er full av eksempler på tankegods, oppfinnelser og oppdagelser som har utfordret eksisterende tilstander og som har lagt grunnlag for den nye normalen.

Homo sapiens – Det moderne mennesket som unntak

Som mennesker kjenner vi ikke noen annen væremåte enn vår egen – det er vi som er normalen. Selv om vi sjelden tenker på vår egen plass i planetens historie når vi hører ordet «unntak», er det i mange tilfeller nærliggende å starte med oss selv; Homo sapiens – det moderne mennesket som et unntak i vår klodes historie.

Gjennom jordklodens milliarder år lange historie kan det moderne mennesket uten tvil sees på som et unikum. Til å være kun 315.000 år «ung», har vår art i et påfallende tempo utviklet sivilisasjoner og moderne samfunn ved bruk av tenkning, språk, religion, teknologi og sosiale, politiske og økonomiske systemer. Dette har vi gjort, ikke bare for å overleve, men for å påvirke og forme planeten vi bor på. Alt dette står i sterk kontrast til samtlige arter både før vår tid og i vår samtid. 

Slaveri

Til tross for at vi alle er likeverdige av natur, mangler det historisk sett ikke forsøk på å fravike denne grunnleggende kjensgjerningen. Størst utslag har dette muligens gitt seg i et fenomen like gammelt som sivilisasjonene selv – slaveri. I form av tvungent arbeid, krigføring eller underholdning, har slaveri vært normalisert og praktisert over hele verden. Ideen om det frie mennesket er en selvfølge for oss i dag, men det er ikke lenge siden dette var et revolusjonerende tankesett. I de aller fleste land er slaveri nå avskaffet, men det praktiseres fremdeles i noen former, blant annet i form av tvunget arbeid, bruk av barnesoldater og menneskesmugling – sistnevnte også vanlig i moderne vestlige samfunn.

Fenomenet slaveri har altså gått fra å være en integrert og selvfølgelig del av alle samfunn, til å bli fordømt over hele verden og i stor grad bekjempet. Med andre ord har slaveri gått fra å være normalen til å bli unntaket. Til tross for at slaveri fremdeles eksisterer i ulike former i dag, blir det nå møtt med forakt og aktiv motsettelse.

Blasfemi

I kontrast til dette har vi blasfemi, som tidligere ble møtt med avsky, men som det nå er større aksept for. 

Like gamle som religionene selv, er forbudene mot enhver form for åpen kritikk og granskning av religion. Å utfordre religion har gjennom hele menneskets historie blitt ansett  som blasfemi og vært underlagt de hardeste straffer.

 Verdenssamfunnet har endret seg kraftig med etableringen av prinsipper som sekularisering, religionsfrihet og ytringsfrihet. Den nye realiteten – i hvert fall i den vestlige delen av verden – er å være åpen for kritikk av religion i tale så vel som i tekst og bilder. Det er imidlertid bemerkelsesverdig at selv i dag kan en ytring ansett som blasfemisk eller religionskritisk skape store kontroverser – også i sekulariserte samfunn. Videre er det fremdeles mange samfunn i verden der blasfemi er like fordømt som tidligere. Med andre ord; det som anses som normalen i samfunn likt vårt eget, er fremdeles et unntak i andre samfunn og kulturer.

Maktfordelingsprinsippet

Da maktfordelingsprinsippet for alvor slo gjennom, var det en ganske revolusjonerende tanke. Maktfordelingsprinsippet blir ofte koblet til 1700-tallets Montesquieu, men flere filosofer hadde utviklet lignende doktriner lenge før hans tid. Det var dog Montesquieus moderne maktfordelingsprinsipp som skulle vise seg å inspirere frigjøring og statsdannelse i nyere historie. 

Enten det er direkte forankret i konstitusjoner eller indirekte utledet av deres utforming, har maktfordelingsprinsippet blitt et grunnleggende statsrettslig prinsipp. I løpet av de siste 300 årene har tyranniske og lukkede styrer gått fra å være status quo til å bli unntak og avvik der de i dag fremdeles praktiseres.

Likestilling

Minst like revolusjonerende som maktfordelingsprinsippet var tankene om likestilling mellom kjønnene. Frem til likhet ble satt på dagsorden, hadde kvinner i all tid kun vært deltagere i mannens verden.

Mange vil forbinde likestilling med frigjørings- og likestillingsdebattene som preget verdenssamfunnet på 1970-tallet, men allerede tidlig på 1800-tallet hadde ideen om den likestilte kvinnen kommet på banen. Kvinnekampen dreide seg innledningsvis om helt grunnleggende rettigheter som autonomi og økonomisk frihet, stemmerett og retten til utdanning og arbeid. Deretter kom de «moderne» kampsakene på banen; blant annet retten til abort og tilrettelegging for samfunnsdeltagelse etter familieetablering.

Frigjøring og likestilling av kvinner er trolig noe de aller fleste vil identifisere som en av de største endringene gjennom menneskets historie. Til tross for dette, eksisterer det fremdeles i dag høyst patriarkalske samfunn der likestilling forblir utenkelig. Også i vår del av verden er ideen om likhet i muligheter og selvbestemmelse under stadig angrep, noe for eksempel de seneste abortdebattene viser.

Barn som subjekter

Der marginaliserte grupper som slaver, minoriteter og kvinner har kunnet kjempe for sine rettigheter til å bli ansett som likestilte, er det imidlertid en gruppe som aldri har vært i stand til å tale sin sak på egenhånd; barn. 

I hele menneskets historie har barn vært ansett som foreldrenes eiendeler. De har blitt ansett som objekter uten egne rettigheter og behov. På 1800-tallet fant det imidlertid sted et paradigmeskifte i synet på barn, da ideen om barn som egne individer med behov og rettigheter på linje med voksne fikk fotfeste. Utover 1900-tallet økte anerkjennelsen av barn som subjekter, godt forankret i ny forskning innen psykologi, sosiologi, pedagogikk og antropologi.

Men selv i de mest utviklede samfunn er det fortsatt utfordringer knyttet til barns rettigheter. I utviklingsland er utfordringene enda større. Det siste århundret har det imidlertid blitt gjort til en kjensgjerning at barn har særskilte behov og spesielle omsorgs- og beskyttelsesbehov. Det tilstrebes derfor å gjøre denne nye normalen til gjeldende for alle verdens barn.

Aksept og behandling for psykiske lidelser

Trolig mer enn noen annen form for sykdom, er det psykiske lidelser som har vært gjenstand for mest negative fordommer, latterliggjøring og stigmatisering. I store deler av menneskets historie har samfunnet behandlet mennesker med psykiske lidelser på lik linje med slaver og kriminelle; som avvikerne i samfunnet.

Først under opplysningstiden ble det satt fokus på forståelse for og behandling av psykiske lidelser, men selv da, og fortsatt til en viss grad i dag, blir psykiske lidelser tilskrevet rent fysiske årsaker, og behandlingen utføres deretter. Men i dag anerkjenner heldigvis de fleste at psykiske lidelser ikke nødvendigvis alltid har sitt utspring i fysiske forhold. Store fremskritt er også gjort i behandlingen av psykiske lidelser. Til tross for at aksepten for og åpenheten rundt psykiske lidelser har blitt den nye normalen i de mange samfunn i dag, er det ikke til å stikke under en stol at dette fremdeles er tabubelagt i ulike kulturer.

Unntakene i vår historie er mange og å gi en uttømmende fremstilling vil neppe være realistisk. I denne teksten har det derimot blitt gjengitt noen eksempler på slike unntak. Det er betryggende at våre tanker og skikker utfordres og at de stadig gjennomgår  en utvikling.  Denne endringen innebærer også at en del som vi tenker på som unntak i dag vil kunne bli «the new normal» i fremtiden. 

KILDER


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